1st Edition

Digital Architecture

Edited By Mark Burry
    1660 Pages
    by Routledge

    ‘Digital architecture’ is a relatively recent critical concept and encompasses all aspects of the discipline of architecture engaging with computation. It has evolved into a domain in its own right, as it were, rather than always being present from the first time architects ceded slide rule use in favour of electronically assisted computation. As this major collection reveals, we have witnessed growth of a creative digital influence across all of architecture’s subdisciplines and few can deny that there is now a maturity in the conversation which had been previously quite elusive. As a major work of collected critical insights Digital Architecture therefore compiles the key texts that will be as useful to the initiate as to the experienced professional, as relevant to the academician as to the practitioner and as revealing to the sceptic as they will be to the digitally converted. It does not promote any particular stream of innovation nor establish any particular cultural agenda.

    The focus of the collection is the contemporary period extending from the late 1980s to the present day contextualised through the inclusion of key texts from the earlier pioneers, ordered into six sections. Each section is arranged in chronological order except where thematic clustering helps consolidate the material more usefully for the reader.

    A review of the best material that has brought us to an emerging digital design maturity, fully indexed, this will be a very valuable reference for all.

    Volume 1

    Part 1: Information and Data Management

    1. Yehuda E. Kalay, ‘Redefining the Role of Computers in Architecture: From Drafting/Modelling Tools to Knowledge-Based Design Assistants’, Computer-Aided Design, 17, 7, 1985, 319–328.

    2. Bo-Christer Björk and Hannu Penttilä, ‘A Scenario for the Development and Implementation of a Building Product Model Standard’, Advances in Engineering Software, 11, 4, 1989, 176–187.

    3. John S. Gero, ‘Design Prototypes: A Knowledge Representation Schema for Design’, AI Magazine, 11, 4, 1990, 26-36.

    4. George Stiny, ‘The Algebras of Design’, Research in Engineering Design, 2, 3, 1991, 171-181.

    5. Raúl Medina-Mora, Terry Winograd, Rodrigo Flores and Fernando Flores, ‘The Action Workflow Approach to Workflow Management Technology’, in Proceedings of the 1992 ACM Conference on Computer-supported Cooperative Work (Toronto: ACM, 1992), pp. 281-288.

    6. Rivka E. Oxman and Robert M. Oxman, ‘Refinement and Adaptation in Design Cognition’, Design Studies, 13, 2, 1992, 117-134.

    7. Robert Amor and Ihsan Faraj, ‘Misconceptions About Integrated Project Databases’, ITcon, 6, 2001, 57-68.

    8. Brad Johanson, Armando Fox, and Terry Winograd, ‘The Interactive Workspaces Project: Experiences with Ubiquitous Computing Rooms’, IEEE Pervasive Computing, 1, 2, 2002, 67-74.

    9. Charles Eastman, Rafael Sacks, Ghang Lee, ‘Strategies for Realizing the Benefits of 3D Integrated Modeling of Buildings for the AEC Industry’, in 19th International Symposium on Automation and Robotics in Construction (Washington DC: ISARC 2002), pp. 9-14.

    10. Jos P. Van Leeuwen, and Sverker Fridqvist, ‘Object Version Control for Collaborative Design’, in Tunçer, Özsariyildiz, and Sariyildiz (eds.), E-Activities in Building Design and Construction, Proceedings of the 9th EuropIA International Conference, (Istanbul: EuropIA Productions, 2003), pp. 129-139.

    11. Robert F. Woodbury, and Andrew L. Burrow, ‘Whither Design Space?’, Artificial Intelligence for Engineering Design, Analysis and Manufacturing, 20, 2, 2006, 63-82.

    12. Anthony Burke ‘Redefining Network Paradigms’, in A. Burke and T. Tierney (eds), Network Practices, New Strategies in Architecture and Design (NY: Princeton Architectural Press, 2007), pp. 38-61.

    13. Dennis Shelden, ‘Information Modelling as a Paradigm Shift’, Architectural Design, 79, 2, 2009, 80-83.

    Part 2: Digital Representation

    14. Tsuyoshi T. Sasada, ‘Drawing Natural Scenery by Computer Graphics’, Computer-Aided Design, 19, 4, 1987, 212-218.

    15. Milton Tan, ‘Saying What It is by What It is Like - Describing Shapes Using Line Relationships’, in M. McCullough, W. J. Mitchell and P. Purcell (eds), The Electronic Design Studio: Architectural Knowledge and Media in the Computer Era, CAAD Futures (Cambridge, Massachusetts: MIT Press, 1990), pp. 201-214.

    16. Xiao D. He, Kenneth E. Torrance, François X. Sillion and Donald P. Greenberg, ‘A Comprehensive Physical Model for Light Reflection’, Proceedings of the 18th Annual Conference on Computer Graphics and Interactive Techniques (SIGGRAPH '91) (ACM, New York, NY, USA), pp. 175-186.

    17. Gerhard N. Schmitt, and Chen-Cheng Chen, ‘Classes of Design — Classes of Methods — Classes of Tools’, Design Studies, 12, 4, 1991, 246-251.

    18. Mark D. Gross and Ellen Yi-Luen Do, ‘Ambiguous Intentions: A Paper-Like Interface for Creative Design’, in Proceedings of the 9th Annual ACM Symposium on User Interface Software and Technology (Seattle: ACM, 1996), pp. 183-192.

    19. Alan Bridges and Dimitrios Charitos, ‘On Architectural Design in Virtual Environments’, Design Studies, 18, 2, 1997, 143-154.

    20. Paul Richens, ‘Image Processing for Urban Scale Environmental Modelling’, in Proceedings of the 5th International IBPSA Conference: Building Simulation 97 (Prague: IBPSA, 1997), pp. 1-9.

    21. Pia Ednie-Brown, ‘The Texture of Diagrams’, Daidalos: Diagrammania, 74, 2000, 72-79.

    22. Alexander Koutamanis, ‘Digital Architectural Visualization’, Automation in Construction, 9, 4, 2000, 253-261.

    23. H. H. Achten, ‘Requirements for Collaborative Design in Architecture’, In H. J. P. Timmermans and B. de Vries, (eds), Proceedings of the Sixth Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning Conference (Avegoor, The Netherlands, 2002), pp. 373-392.

    24. Tom Maver and Jelena Petric, ‘Sustainability: Real and/or Virtual?’, Automation in Construction, 12, 6, 2003, 641-648.

    25. F. Penz, 'Architecture and the Screen from Photography to Synthetic Imaging: Capturing and Building Space, Time and Motion', in F. Penz and M. Thomas (eds), Architectures of Illusion—From Motion Pictures to Navigable Interactive Environments (Chicago: Intellect Ltd, 2003), pp. 135-164.

    26. André G. P. Brown, ‘Visualization as a Common Design Language: Connecting Art and Science’, Automation in Construction, 12, 6, 2003, 703-713.

    27. Carlo Ratti and Paul Richens, ‘Raster Analysis of Urban Form’, Environment and Planning B: Planning and Design, 31, 2, 2004, 297-309.

    28. Ben Van Berkel and Caroline Bos, ‘Design Models', in UN Studio, Design Models: Architecture, Urbanism, Infrastructure (London: Thames & Hudson, 2006), pp.10-23.

    Volume 2

    Part 3: Computer Science’s Philosophical Contributions to the Culture of Architecture

    29. Gordon Pask, ‘The Architectural Relevance of Kenetics’, Architectural Design, 39, 9, 1969, 494-496.

    30. John von Neumann, ‘The Role of High and of Extremely High Complication’ and ‘Re-evaluation of the Problems of Complicated Automata – Problems of Hierarchy and Evolution’, in Theory of Self-Reproducing Automata (Urbana: University Illinois Press, 1966) pp.64-87.

    31. Gerard de Zeeuw, ‘Problems of Increasing Competence’, Systems Research, 2, 1, 1985, 13-19.

    32. Dirk J. Struik, ‘The Sociology of Mathematics Revisited: A Personal Note’, Science & Society, 50, 3, 1986, 280-99.

    33. Lucien Kroll, ‘Computers’, in The Architecture of Complexity (Cambridge: MIT Press, 1987), pp.91-114.

    34. Ivan E. Sutherland, ‘Micropipelines’, Communications of the ACM, 32, 6, 1989, 720-738.

    35. William Mitchell, ‘Design Worlds’, in The Logic of Architecture: Design Computation and Cognition (Cambridge, Massachusetts: MIT Press, 1990), pp. 37-57.

    36. Jeffrey Kipnis, 'Towards a New Architecture', in Architectural Design, 63, 3-4, 1993, 40-49.

    37. John H. Frazer, ‘The Architectural Relevance of Cybernetics’, Systems Research, 10, 3, 1993, 43-48.

    38. Richard Coyne, ‘Heidegger and Virtual Reality: The Implications of Heidegger's Thinking for Computer Representations’, Leonardo, 27, 1, 1994, 65-73.

    39. Bernard Cache, ‘A Plea for Euclid’, ANY: Architecture New York, 24, 1999, 54-59.

    40. Paul Coates, Terence Broughton and Helen Jackson, ‘Exploring Three-Dimensional Design Worlds Using Lindenmeyer Systems and Genetic Programming’, in P. J. Bentley (ed.), Evolutionary Design by Computers (Burlington: Morgan Kaufmann, 1999), pp. 323-341.

    41. Karl S Chu and X. Kavya, ‘The Turing Dimension’, in F. Migayrou, B. Simonot and M. A. Brayer (eds), ArchiLab: Radical Experiments in Global Architecture (London: Thames & Hudson, 2001), pp. 490-494.

    42. Ranulph Glanville, ‘An Intelligent Architecture’, Convergence: The International Journal of Research into New Media Technologies, 7, 2, 2001, 12-24.

    43. Patrick Janssen, John Frazer and Tang Ming-Xi, ‘Evolutionary Design Systems and Generative Processes’, Applied Intelligence, 16, 2, 2002, 119-128.

    44. Manuel DeLanda, ‘Deleuze and the Use of the Genetic Algorithm in Architecture’, in Neil Leach (ed.), Designing for a Digital World (Sussex: Wiley-Academy Press, 2002), pp. 117-120.

    45. Sanford Kwinter, ‘The Complex and the Singular’, in Architectures of Time: Toward a Theory of the Event in Modernist Culture (Cambridge: MIT Press, 2002), pp. 3-31.

    46. Lars Spuybroek, ‘The Structure of Vagueness’, in L. Spuybroek, (ed), NOX Machining Architecture (London: Thames and Hudson, 2004), pp. 352-359

    47. Ali Rahim, ‘Affects and Effects’, in Catalytic Formations: Architecture and Digital Design (Oxon, UK: Taylor & Francis, 2006), pp. 136-187.

    48. Michael Speaks, ‘Intelligence After Theory’, Perspecta, 38, 2006, 103-108

    49. Usman Haque, ‘The Architectural Relevance of Gordon Pask’, Architectural Design, 77, 4, 2007, 54-61.

    50. Neil Leach, 'Swarm Urbanism', Architectural Design, 79, 4, 2009, 56-63.

    51. Patrik Schumacher, ‘Parametricism: A New Global Style for Architecture and Urban Design’, Architectural Design, 79, 4, 2009, 14-23.

    Volume 3

    Part 4: Design Computation and Computer Programming

    52. Steven Anson Coons, ‘An Outline of the Requirements for a Computer-Aided Design System’, in Proceedings of the May 21-23, 1963, Spring Joint Computer Conference (Detroit: ACM, 1963), pp. 299-304.

    53. Terry Winograd, ‘From Programming Environments to Environments for Designing’, Communications of the ACM, 38 ,6, 1995, 65-74

    54. Kristina Shea and Jonathan Cagan, ‘Innovative Dome Design: Applying Geodesic Patterns with Shape Annealing’, AI EDAM: Artificial Intelligence for Engineering, Design, Analysis and Manufacturing, 11, 5, 1997, 379-394.

    55. Bharat Dave, et al, ‘Case-Based Spatial Design Reasoning’, Advances in Case-Based Reasoning, Lecture Notes in Computer Science, 984, 1995, 198-210.

    56. Ulrich Flemming and Robert Woodbury, ‘Software Environment to Support Early Phases in Building Design (SEED): Overview’, Journal of Architectural Engineering, 1, 4, 1995, 147-152.

    57. Jules Moloney, ‘Digital Craft’, unpublished chapter.

    58. Les A. Piegl and Wayne Tiller, ‘Computing Offsets of NURBS Curves and Surfaces’, Computer-Aided Design, 31, 2, 1999, 147-156.

    59. Athanassios Economou, ‘The Symmetry Lessons from Froebel Building Gifts’, Environment and Planning B: Planning and Design, 26, 1, 1999, 75-90.

    60. Jaroslaw Szewczyk and Adam Jakimowicz, ‘Multi User Interface Problems in Current CAD Systems’, in M. Stellingwerff, and J. Verbeke (eds), ACCOLADE - Architecture, Collaboration, Design (Delft: Delft University Press [DUP Science], 2001), pp. 183-194.

    61. Chris J. K. Williams, ‘The Analytic and Numerical Definition of the Geometry of the British Museum Great Court Roof’, in M. Burry, S. Datta, A. Dawson and A. J. Rollo, (eds), The Proceedings of the Third International Mathematics and Design Conference M&D2001: Digital, Hand, Eye, Ear, Mind (Geelong: Deakin University, 1999), pp. 434-440.

    62. Terry Knight, ‘Computing with Emergence’, Environment and Planning B: Planning and Design, 30, 1, 2003, 125-155.

    63. Hugh Whitehead, ‘Laws of Form’, in Branko Kolarevic (ed.), Architecture in the Digital Age: Design and Manufacturing (New York: Spon Press, 2003), pp. 81-100.

    64. Kostas Terzisdis, ‘Hybrid Form’, Design Issues, 19, 1, 2003, 57-61.

    65. Mark Burry, ‘Between Intuition and Process: Parametric Design and Rapid Prototyping’, in Branko Kolarevic (ed.), Architecture in the Digital Age: Design and Manufacturing (New York: Spon Press, 2003), pp.147-162.

    66. Robert Aish and Robert Woodbury, ‘Multi-Level Interaction in Parametric Design’, Lecture Notes in Computer Science, 3638, 2005, 151-62.

    67. Axel Kilian, ‘Design Innovation Through Constraint Modeling’, International Journal of Architectural Computing, 4, 1, 2006, 87-105.

    68. Jane R. Burry, ‘Mindful Spaces: Computational Geometry and the Conceptual Spaces in Which Designers Operate’, International Journal of Architectural Computing, 5, 4, 2007, 611-624.

    69. Neil C. Katz, ‘Parametric Modeling in AutoCAD’, AECbytes Viewpoint, 32, 2007.

    70. Ingeborg M. Rocker, ‘Versioning: Architecture as Series?’, in First International Conference on Critical Digital: What Matters(s)? (Cambridge: Harvard University Graduate School of Design, 2008), pp. 157-170.

    71. Sawako Kaijima, Panagiotis Michalatos and Adams Kara Taylor Computational Design Consultancy: Interface Between Construction Disciplines, Architecture in Computro [26th eCAADe Conference Proceedings Antwerpen (Belgium) 17-20 September 2008, pp. 311-318.

    72. Achim Menges, ‘Integral Formation and Materialisation: Computational Form and Material Gestalt’, in B. Kolarevic and K. Klinger (eds.), Manufacturing Material Effects: Rethinking Design and Making in Architecture (New York: Routledge, 2008), pp. 195-210.

    73. Brady Peters, ‘Parametric Acoustic Surfaces’, in ACADIA 09: reForm(): Proceedings of the 29th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA, 2009), pp. 174-181.

    74. Michela Turrin, Axel Kilian, Rudi Stouffs and Sevil Sariyildiz, ‘Digital Design Exploration of Structural Morphologies Integrating Adaptable Modules: A Design Process Based on Parametric Modeling’ in T. Tidafi and T. Dorta (eds), Joining Languages, Cultures and Visions: CAADFutures 2009 (Montreal: Les Presses de l'Université de Montréal, 2009), pp. 800- 814.

    75. Sean Ahlquist and Achim Menges, ‘Realizing Formal and Functional Complexity for Structurally Dynamic Systems in Rapid Computational Means: Computational Methodology based on Particle Systems for Complex Tension-Active Form Generation’, in Advances in Architectural Geometry (Vienna: Springer, 2010), pp. 205-220

    76. Andrew I-kang Li, ‘Computing Style’, Nexus Network Journal, 13, 1, 2011, 183-193.

    77. Fabian Schuerer, ‘Signal to Noise - What is Quality in Digital Architecture?’, in T. Valena, T. Avermaete and G. Vrachliotis (eds), Structuralism Reloaded: Rule Based Design in Architecture and Urbanism (Fellbach-Stuttgart: Edition Axel Menges, 2011), pp. 269-274.

    Volume 4

    Part 5: Novel Architectural Design

    78. Greg Lynn, ‘Multiplicitous and Inorganic Bodies’, Assemblage, 19, 1992, 33-49.

    79. Marcos Novak, ‘Transmitting Architecture Revisited’, Conference proceedings, The XXIII UIA World Congress of Architecture, Torino 2008.

    80. Cecil Balmond, ‘New Structure and the Informal’, Assemblage, 33, 1997, 47-57.

    81. Mark Goulthorpe, ‘Aegis Hypo-surface: Autoplastic to Alloplastic’, in Architectural Design: Hypersurface Architecture II (London: Wiley Academy Press, 2000), pp. 60-65.

    82. Michael Nitsche and Maureen Thomas, ‘Stories in Space: The Concept of the Story Map’, Lecture Notes in Computer Science, 3805, 2003, 85-93.

    83. S. Roudavski and F. Penz, ‘Space, Agency, Meaning and Drama in Navigable Real-Time Virtual Environments’, in M. Copier and J. Raessens (eds), Digital Games Research Conference 2003 Proceedings (Utrecht: Utrecht University, 2003), pp. 1-16.

    84. Marc Aurel Schnabel, Thomas Kvan, Steve K. S. Kuan and Weidong Li, ‘3D Crossover: Exploring Objets Digitalisé’, International Journal of Architectural Computing, 2, 4, 2004, 476-490.

    85. Philip Steadman, ‘Why are Most Buildings Rectangular?’, Architectural Research Quarterly, 10, 2, 2006, 119-130.

    86. Neri Oxman, ‘Digital Craft: Fabrication Based Design in the Age of Digital Production’, in Workshop Proceedings for Ubicomp 2007: International Conference on Ubiquitous Computing (Innsbruck: Ubicomp, 2007), pp. 534-538.

    87. Jenny E. Sabin and Peter Lloyd Jones, ‘Nonlinear Systems Biology and Design: Surface Design’, in Proceedings of the 28th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA) (Minneapolis: ACADIA, 2008), pp. 54-65.

    88. Mario Carpo, ‘Nonstandard Morality: Digital Technology and Its Discontents’, in Anthony Vidler (ed.), Architecture Between Spectacle and Use (Williamstown, Massachusetts: Sterling and Francine Clark Art Institute, 2008), pp. 127-142.

    89. Neil Spiller, ‘Plectic Architecture: Towards a Theory of The Post- Digital in Architecture’, in Digital Architecture Now: A Global Survey of Emerging Talent (London: Thames and Hudson, 2008), pp. 362-366.

    90. Kas Oosterhuis, ‘WeRobot(s)’, in K. Oosterhuis and H. Bier (eds), IA # 5, Robotic Architecture (Heijningen, the Netherlands: Jap Sam Books, 2012), pp. 7-12.

    91. Mette Ramsgard Thomsen and Martin Tamke, ‘The Active Model: A Calibration of Material Intent’, in P. Ayres (ed.), Persistent Modelling: Extending the Role of Architectural Representation (London: Routledge, 2012), pp. 141-154.

    92. Michael U. Hensel, ‘Performance-oriented Design from a Material Perspective – Domains of Agency and the Spatial Material Organisation Complex’, in Y. J. Grobman and E. Neuman (eds), Performalism: Form and Performance in Digital Architecture (London: Routledge, 2012), pp.43-48.

    Part 6: Digital Architecture as Transdisciplinary Bridge Builder

    93. Pierre E. Bézier, ‘A Personal View of Progress in Computer Aided Design’, ACM SIGGRAPH Computer Graphics, 20, 3, 1986, 154-159.

    94. Jerzy Wojtowicz and Kazimierz Butelski, ‘Lessons from Distributed Design Practice’, in A. Brown, et.al (eds.), Architectural Computing from Turing to 2000 eCAADe Conference Proceedings (Liverpool: eCAADe, 1999), pp. 482-487.

    95. Thomas Kvan, ‘Collaborative Design: What Is It?’, Automation in Construction, 9, 4, 2000, 409-415.

    96. Branko Kolarevic, Gerhard Schmitt, Urs Hirschberg, David Kurmann and Brian Johnson, ‘An Experiment in Design Collaboration’, Automation in Construction, 9, 1, 2000, 73-81.

    97. Kevin R. Klinger, ‘Expressive Form or Digital Craft?: Historical Arguments for an Alignment of Design and Fabrication Processes in the Digital Age’, in ACSA National Conference (New Orleans: ACSA, 2002), pp. 1-6.

    98. Bryan Lawson, ‘Schemata, Gambits and Precedent: Some Factors in Design Expertise’, Design Studies, 25, 5, 2004, 443-457.

    99. Bob Sheil, ‘Transgression from Drawing to Making’, Architectural Research Quarterly, 9, 1, 2005, 20-32.

    100. Francois Roche, ‘(Science) Fiction & Mass Culture Crisis’, in B. Durandin and A. Ruby (eds), Spoiled Climate (Birkhauser, 2004), pp. 56-60

    101. Michael Weinstock, ‘Self‐Organisation and Material Constructions’, Architectural Design, 76, 2, 2006, 34-41.

    102. Klaus Bollinger, Manfred Grohmann and Oliver Tessmann, ‘Form, Force, Performance: Multi‐Parametric Structural Design’, Architectural Design, 78, 2, 2008, 20-25.

    103. Thomas Fischer, ‘The Interdependence of Linear and Circular Causality in CAAD Research: A Unified Model’, in Proceedings of the 15th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia (Hong Kong: CAADRIA, 2010), pp. 609-618.

    104. Flora D. Salim, Hugo M. Mulder and Jane R. Burry, ‘Form Fostering: A Novel Design Approach for Interacting with Parametric Models in the Embodied Virtuality’, ITcon, 16, 2011, 135-150.




    Professor Mark Burry is Director of the Smart Cities Institute, Swinburne University of Technology, Australia