1st Edition

Disarmament, Demobilisation and Reintegration of Ex-Combatants in Africa

Edited By Ibrahim Bangura Copyright 2023

    This book critically examines the approaches to Disarmament, Demobilisation and Reintegration (DDR) of ex-combatants programming in Africa.

    Drawing on empirical evidence from across the continent, the book investigates the different theories, contextual realities and approaches that have informed the establishment and implementation of such programmes, the opportunities they have provided for stability, peace and security, and the challenges with which they have contended. The book combines broader theoretical analysis with country-specific case studies, including Nigeria, the Central African Republic, South Sudan, Somalia, Liberia, Sierra Leone, Burundi, Zimbabwe, South Africa, and the Democratic Republic of Congo. Overall, the book asks how DDR programming has evolved in Africa, what factors have contributed to the success or failure of DDR processes, and what we can expect for DDR in Africa in the future.

    This book will be a useful guide for students and researchers across the fields of Peace and Conflict Studies, Security Studies, History, Political Science, Sociology, and African Studies.

    Part I: Conceptual and Contextual Background

    1. Introduction: DDR in Theory and Practice in Africa and Beyond: Emerging Trends and Frameworks
    2. Ibrahim Bangura

    3. Lessons from the African Union’s Engagement on DDR in Africa
    4. Augustine Owusu, Rhoda Mwende Kiilu and Shreya Paudel

      Part II: Concepts, Contexts and Themes

    5. Linking Transitional Justice and Disarmament, Demobilisation, and Reintegration in Africa: A Practical Analysis
    6. Mohamed Suma

    7. Release and Reintegration of Children Formerly Associated with Armed Forces and Armed Groups in Africa: A Critical Reflection
    8. Fatuma Ibrahim

    9. Lessons Learned and Promising Approaches to Gender-Responsive DDR Programming in Africa
    10. Luisa Maria Dietrich Ortega

    11. Emerging Trends: DDR and Countering Violent Extremism in Africa
    12. Ibrahim Bangura and Henry Mbawa

      Part III: Contextual Case Studies

    13. A Narrow and Uncertain Path: Operation Safe Corridor and the Defectors Programme in Northeast Nigeria
    14. Usman Tar and Sasilkar Banu

    15. Innovations to DDR to address the Identity-Based Violent Conflicts and Stabilise Combatants of Central African Republic
    16. Irma Specht

    17. Release and reintegration of the children of the White Army of South Sudan: Cultural Realities versus DDR Programming
    18. Irma Specht

    19. Connecting the Dots: DDR, Economic Recovery and Peacebuilding in the Democratic Republic of Congo
    20. Mark van Dorp

    21. Somalia: Towards a Fourth Generation DDR?
    22. Mohamed Gibril Sesay

    23. Incomplete Disarmament, Demobilisation, Rehabilitation and Reintegration (DDRR): A Prescription for Prolonged Fragility in Liberia
    24. Raphaela Tabea Kormoll and T. Debey Sayndee

    25. Interrogating DDR and Peacebuilding Experience in Post-War Sierra Leone
    26. Henry Mbawa

    27. A Contextual and Intersectional Analysis of Ex-Combatant Reintegration: The Case of Burundi
    28. Élise Féron

    29. From Combatants to Civilians: A Never-Ending Transition in Zimbabwe
    30. Godfrey Maringira; Edmore Chitukutuku and Simbarashe Gukurume

    31. When Ex-Combatants Return to Violent Townships: Expectations and Masculinities Among Azania People’s Liberation Army in South Africa
    32. Godfrey Maringira, Simbarashe Gukurume and Malose Langa


      Part V Drawing Conclusions

    33. Conclusion: Looking to the Future: DDR, Stabilisation and Peacebuilding in Africa
      Ibrahim Bangura


    Ibrahim Bangura is a Senior Lecturer in the Department of Peace and Conflict Studies, Fourah Bay College, University of Sierra Leone, Freetown, Sierra Leone, and is a senior partner of Transition International, Netherlands.