Especially in an era of rapid global environmental change, questions and issues about and around natural hazards and disasters are dizzying in their complexityâand urgency. Answering the need for an authoritative reference work to make sense of this fast-moving area, and its vast and multidisciplinary corpus of scholarly literature, Disaster Risk is a new title from the acclaimed Routledge series, Critical Concepts in the Environment. Edited by a trio of expert researchers, this new collection of major works embraces a wide variety of methodological traditions to bring together in four volumes the foundational and the very best cutting-edge scholarship. The collection enables users to accessâand to make sense ofâthe most important research and practice. It provides a synoptic view of all the key issues, current debates, and controversies.
Disaster Risk is fully indexed and includes comprehensive introductions, newly written by the editors, which place the collected materials in their historical and intellectual context. It is an essential reference collection and is destined to be valued by scholars and studentsâas well as policy-makers and practitionersâas a vital one-stop research and pedagogic resource.
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Disaster Risk is edited by three leading scholars in the field: Ben Wisner, formerly Director of International Studies at California State University at Long Beach, with a long career before that in research and teaching. He is presently engaged in full-time research and writing and has recently completed a four-year project for the United Nations University on defining and managing urban social vulnerability to disasters in six megacities (Johannesburg, Tokyo, Manila, Mumbai, Mexico City, and Los Angeles). The other co-editors of this Routledge Major Works collection are J. C. Gaillard of the University of Auckland, New Zealand; and Ilan Kelman, based at the Center for International Climate and Environmental Research, Oslo, Norway.
Table of Contents
Volume I: Big-Picture Views
Part 1: Definitions
1. R. W. Perry, âWhat is a Disaster?â, in H. Rodriguez, E. Quarentelli, and R. Dynes (eds.), Handbook of Disaster Research (Springer, 2007), pp. 1â15.
2. N. Ball, âSome Notes on Defining Disaster: Suggestions for a Disaster Continuumâ, Disasters, 1979, 3, 1, 3â7.
3. K. Hewitt and I. Burton, âDimensions of the Hazard Problemâ and âThe Study of "All Hazards at a Place"â, The Hazardousness of a Place: A Regional Ecology of Damaging Events (University of Toronto Press, 1971), pp. 3â30.
4. M. H. Glantz, âNine Fallacies of Natural Disaster: The Case of the Sahelâ, Climatic Change, 1977, 1, 1, 69â84.
5. G. Wilches-Chaux Sena, âThe Global Vulnerabilityâ, in Y. Aysan and I. Davis (eds.), Disasters and the Small Dwelling (James & James, 1992), pp. 30â5.
6. D. E. Alexander, âResilience and Disaster Risk Reduction: An Etymological Journeyâ, Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences, 2013, 13, 11, 2707â16.
Part 2: Politics and Power
7. K. Hewitt, âThe Idea of Calamity in a Technocratic Ageâ, in Hewitt (ed.), Interpretations of Calamity (Allen & Unwin, 1983), pp. 3â32.
8. J. K. Boyce, âLet them Eat Risk? Wealth, Rights and Disaster Vulnerabilityâ, Disasters, 2000, 24, 3, 254â61.
9. L. Bondestam, âUnderstanding Hunger and Predicting Starvationâ, Food and Nutrition Bulletin, 1981, 3, 4.
10. J. Copans, âDroughts, Famines, and the Evolution of Senegal (1966â1978)â, Mass Emergencies, 1979, 4, 87â93.
11. A. de Waal, âWar and Famine in Africaâ, IDS Bulletin, 1993, 24, 4, 33â40.
12. B. Hartmann and J. Boyce, A Quiet Violence: View from a Bangladesh Village (Zed Books, 1983), pp. 177â228 (extracts).
13. P. Susman, P. OâKeefe, and B. Wisner, âGlobal Disasters: A Radical Interpretationâ, in K. Hewitt (ed.), Interpretations of Calamity from the Viewpoint of Human Ecology (Allen and Unwin, 1983), pp. 262â83.
14. R. A. Stallings, âConflict in Natural Disasters: A Codification of Consensus and Conflict Theoriesâ, Social Science Quarterly, 1988, 69, 3, 569â86.
Part 3: Culture
15. A. Oliver-Smith, âTheorizing Disasters: Nature, Power, and Cultureâ, in Oliver-Smith and S. Hoffman (eds.), Catastrophe and Culture (School of American Research Press, 2002), pp. 23â48.
16. A. I. Richards, âHuman Relationships and Nutritive Needsâ, Hunger and Work in a Savage Tribe: A Functional Study of Nutrition Among the Southern Bantu  (The Free Press, 1948, pp. 24â32.
17. L. J. Carr, âDisaster and the Sequence-Pattern Concept of Social Changeâ, American Journal of Sociology, 1932, 38, 207â18.
18. D. Schneider, âTyphoons on Yapâ, Human Organization, 1957, 16, 2, 10â15.
19. J. Anderson, âCultural Adaptation to Threatened Disastersâ, Human Organization, 1968, 27, 298â307.
20. W. I. Torry, âNatural Disasters, Social Structure and Change in Traditional Societiesâ, Journal of Asian and African Studies, 1978, 13, 3, 167â83.
21. C. Perrow, âLiving with High-Risk Systemsâ, Normal Accidents: Living with High-Risk Technologies (Basic Books, 1984), pp. 304â52.
22. D. K. Chester, âThe Theodicy of Natural Disastersâ, Scottish Journal of Theology, 1998, 51, 4, 485â505.
23. G. Bankoff, âIn the Eye of the Storm: The Social Construction of the Forces of Nature and the Climatic and Seismic Construction of God in The Philippinesâ, Journal of Southeast Asian Studies, 2004, 35, 1, 91â111.
Part 4: Environment and Development
24. G. F. White, âHuman Adjustment to Floodsâ , in R. Kates and I. Burton (eds.), Selected Writings of Gilbert F. White (University of Chicago Press, 1986), pp. 10â25.
25. F. Cuny, âConceptualizing Disaster Recoveryâ, Disasters and Development (Oxford University Press, 1983), pp. 197â203.
26. A. Lavell, âThe Impact of Disasters on Development Gains: Clarity or Controversyâ (paper presented at the IDNDR Programme Forum, Geneva, 5â9 July 1999).
27. C. G. Flint and A. E. Luloff, âNatural Resource-Based Communities, Risk, and Disaster: An Intersection of Theoriesâ, Society and Natural Resources, 2005, 18, 5, 399â412.
28. J. Spillius, âNatural Disaster and Political Crisis in a Polynesian Society: An Exploration of Operational Researchâ, Human Relations, 1957, 10, 1, 3â27.
29. R. W. Kates, âExperiencing the Environment as Hazardâ, in S. Wapner, S. Cohen, and B. Kaplan (eds.), Experiencing the Environment (Plenum Press, 1976), pp. 133â56.
30. E. Waddell, âThe Hazards of Scientism: A Review Articleâ, Human Ecology, 1977, 5, 1, 69â76.
Volume II: Fine-Grained Views
Part 5: Livelihoods and Resources
31. A. Sen, âIngredients of Famine Analysis: Availability and Entitlementsâ, Quarterly Journal of Economics, 1981, 96, 3, 433â64.
32. R. Chambers, âVulnerability, Coping and Policyâ, IDS Bulletin, 1989, 20, 2, 1â7.
33. C. Moser, âAssets and Livelihoods: A Framework for Asset-Based Social Policyâ, in Moser and A. Dani (eds.), Assets, Livelihoods and Social Policy (The World Bank, 2008), pp. 43â81.
34. D. Sanderson, âCities, Disasters and Livelihoodsâ, Environment and Urbanization, 2000, 12, 2, 93â102.
35. J. Twigg, âSustainable Livelihoods and Vulnerability to Disastersâ (Working Paper 2/2001, Benfield Greig Hazard Research Centre, University College London, 2001).
Part 6: Communities and Civil Society
36. J. Twigg, âThe Age of Accountability? Future Community Involvement in Disaster Reductionâ, Australian Journal of Emergency Management, 1999â2000, 14, 4, 51â8.
37. K. Haynes, J. Barclay, and N. Pidgeon, âThe Issue of Trust and its Influence on Risk Communication During a Volcanic Crisisâ, Bulletin of Volcanology, 2008, 70, 605â21.
38. M. Petal, R. Green, I. Kelman, R. Shaw, and A. Dixit, âCommunity-Based Construction for Disaster Risk Reductionâ, in L. L. Bosher (ed.), Hazards and the Built Environment (Taylor and Francis, 2008), pp. 191â217.
39. B. Wisner and B. Haghebaert, âFriendly Enemies and Fierce Friends: State/Civil Society Relations in Disaster Risk Reductionâ, Sixth ProVention Consortium Forum, Session 4 Discussion Paper (Geneva: ProVention Consortium, 2006).
Part 7: Capacities
40. M. B. Anderson and P. J. Woodrow, âReducing Vulnerability to Drought and Famine: Developmental Approaches to Reliefâ, Disasters, 1991, 15, 1, 43â54.
41. Z. Delica-Willison and R. Willison, âVulnerability Reduction: A Task for the Vulnerable People Themselvesâ, in G. Bankoff, G. Frerks, and D. Hilhorst (eds.), Mapping Vulnerability: Disasters, Development and People (Earthscan, 2004), pp. 145â58.
42. A. Heijmans, âFrom Vulnerability to Empowermentâ, in G. Bankoff, G. Frerks, and D. Hilhorst (eds.), Mapping Vulnerability: Disasters, Development and People (Earthscan, 2004), pp. 115â27.
43. L. Peek, âChildren and Disasters: Understanding Vulnerability, Developing Capacities, and Promoting ResilienceâAn Introductionâ, Children, Youth and Environments, 2008, 18, 1, 1â29.
44. M. Fordham, âThe Intersection of Gender and Social Class in Disaster: Balancing Resilience and Vulnerabilityâ, International Journal of Mass Emergencies and Disasters, 1999, 17, 15â37.
45. C. Pincha and H. Krishna, âAravanis: Voiceless Victims of the Tsunamiâ, Policy and Practice Notes, 2008, 41, 41â3.
46. J. I. Kailes and A. Enders, âMoving Beyond "Special Needs": A Function-Based Framework for Emergency Management and Planningâ, Journal of Disability Policy Studies, 2007, 17, 4, 230â7.
47. S. Levine, A. Pain, S. Bailey, and L. Fan, âThe Relevance of "Resilience"?â, HPG Policy Briefs 49 (Overseas Development Institute, London, 2012).
Part 8: Vulnerabilities
48. P. OâKeefe, K. Westgate, and B. Wisner, âTaking the Naturalness Out of Natural Disastersâ, Nature, 1976, 260, 566â7.
49. P. Timmerman, âVulnerabilityâ, Resilience and the Collapse of Society: A Review of Models and Possible Climatic Applications (Environmental Monograph No. 1, Institute for Environmental Studies, University of Toronto, 1981), pp. 1â42.
50. S. Jeffery, âThe Creation of Vulnerability to Natural Disaster: Case Studies from the Dominican Republicâ, Disasters, 1982, 6, 1, 38â43.
51. M. Bhatt, âCan Vulnerability be Understood?â, in J. Twigg and M. Bhatt (eds.), Understanding Vulnerability: South Asian Perspectives (Duryog Nivaran & Intermediate Technology Publications, 1998), pp. 68â77.
52. M. J. Watts and H. G. Bohle, âThe Space of Vulnerability: The Causal Structure of Hunger and Famineâ, Progress in Human Geography, 1993, 17, 1, 43â67.
53. D. Etkin, âRisk Transference and Related Trends: Driving Forces Towards More Mega-Disastersâ, Environmental Hazards, 1999, 1, 2, 69â75.
54. J. C. Gaillard and F. Navizet, âPrisons, Prisoners and Disasterâ, International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction, 2012, 1, 1, 33â43.
55. E. Enarson and B. H. Morrow, âWhy Gender? Why Women? An Introduction to Women and Disasterâ, in E. Enarson and B.Morrow (eds.), The Gendered Terrain of Disaster: Through Womenâs Eyes (Praeger, 1998), pp. 1â8.
56. E. B. Ngo, âWhen Disasters and Age Collide: Reviewing Vulnerability of the Elderlyâ, Natural Hazards Review, 2001, 2, 80â9.
57. B. Wisner, âMarginality and Vulnerability: Why the Homeless in Tokyo don't "Count" in Disaster Preparationsâ, Applied Geography, 1998, 18, 1, 25â33.
Volume III: Knowledge and Wisdom
Part 9: Whose Knowledge
58. E. Quarantelli and R. Dynes, âWhen Disaster Strikes (It isnât Much Like What Youâve Read About)â, Psychology Today, February 1972, 67â70.
59. A. Maskrey, âCommunity Based Hazard Mitigationâ, Proceedings of the International Conference on Disaster Mitigation Program Implementation (Ocho Rios, Jamaica, 12â16 November 1984), pp. 25â39.
60. J. Mercer, I. Kelman, L. Taranis, and S. Suchet-Pearson, âFramework for Integrating Indigenous and Scientific Knowledge for Disaster Risk Reductionâ, Disasters, 2010, 34, 1, 214â39.
61. Y. Ogawa, A. L. Fernandez, and T. Yoshimura, âTown Watching as a Tool for Citizen Participation in Developing Countries: Applications in Disaster Trainingâ, International Journal of Mass Emergencies and Disasters, 2005, 23, 2, 5â36.
Part 10: Knowledge for Whom
62. R. Chambers, âAll Power Deceivesâ, IDS Bulletin, 1994, 25, 2, 14â26.
63. F. P. Kilpatrick, âProblems of Perception in Extreme Situationsâ, Human Organization, 1957, 16, 2, 20â2.
64. B. Wisner, P. OâKeefe, and K. Westgate, âGlobal Systems and Local Disasters: The Untapped Power of Peoplesâ Scienceâ, Disasters, 1977, 1, 1, 47â57.
65. J. Scanlon and A. Frizzell, âOld Theories Donât Apply: Implications of Communication in Crisisâ, Disasters, 1979, 3, 3, 315â19.
66. World Disasters Report 2005, âData or Dialogue? The Role of Information in Disastersâ.
67. G. Bankoff, âRendering the World Unsafe: "Vulnerability" as Western Discourseâ, Disasters, 2001, 25, 1, 19â35.
68. B. Cooke and U. Kothari, âThe Case for Participation as Tyrannyâ, in B. Cooke and U. Kothari (eds.), Participation: The New Tyranny? (Zed Books, 2001), pp. 1â15.
Part 11: Quantifying and Interpreting
69. B. V. Shah, âIs the Environment Becoming More Hazardous? A Global Survey 1947 to 1980â, Disasters, 1983, 7, 3, 202â9.
70. A. M. R. Chowdhury, A. U. Bhuyia, A. Y. Choudhury, and R. Sen, âThe Bangladesh Cyclone of 1991: Why So Many People Diedâ, Disasters, 1993, 17, 4, 291â304.
71. S. Hoffman, âThe Hidden Victims of Disasterâ, Environmental Hazards, 2003, 5, 67â70.
72. D. Mustafa, S. Ahmed, E. Saroch, and H. Bell, âPinning Down Vulnerability: From Narratives to Numbersâ, Disasters, 2011, 35, 1, 62â86.
Part 12: Crossing Knowledge Boundaries
73. G. F. White, R. W. Kates, and I. Burton, âKnowing Better and Losing Even More: The Use of Knowledge in Hazards Managementâ, Environmental Hazards, 2001, 3, 81â92.
74. V. Garcia-Acosta, âHistorical Perspectives in Risk and Disaster Anthropology: Methodological Approachesâ, Relaciones, 2004, 97, 25, 125â42.
75. C. Gilbert, âStudying Disaster: A Review of the Main Conceptual Toolsâ, International Journal of Mass Emergencies and Disasters, 1995, 13, 3, 231â40.
76. J. L. Demuth, E. Gruntfest, R. E. Morss, S. Drobot, and J. K. Lazo, âWAS*IS: Building a Community for Integrating Meteorology and Social Scienceâ, Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 2007, 88, 1729â37.
77. K. Donovan, J. D. Sidaway, and I. Stewart, âBridging the Geo-Divide: Reflections on an Interdisciplinary (ESRCâNERC) Studentshipâ, Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers, 2011, 36, 9â14.
Part 13: Extracting Wisdom: A Triptych
78. L. von Mises, âCertainty and Uncertaintyâ, The Ultimate Foundation of Economic Science: An Essay on Method (Van Nostrand, 1962), pp. 62â72.
79. E. Wilson, The Creation: An Appeal to Save Life on Earth (W. W. Norton, 2006), pp. 3â36.
80. T. Nhat Hanh, âWe Are the Earthâ, Love Letter to the Earth (Parallax Press, 2013), pp. 8â21.
Volume IV: Having Influence
Part 14: Influencing Policy
81. M. Anderson, âFramework for Analyzing Aidâs Impact on Conflictâ, Do No Harm: How Aid Can Support PeaceâOr War (Lynne Rienner Publishers, 1999), pp. 67â76.
82. A. Oliver-Smith, âSuccesses and Failures in Post-Disaster Resettlementâ, Disasters, 1991, 15, 1, 12â23.
82. A. Taylor and F. Cuny, âThe Evaluation of Humanitarian Assistanceâ, Disasters, 1979, 3, 1, 37â42.
84. P. Walker, B. Wisner, J. Leaning, and L. Minear, âSmoke and Mirrors: Deficiencies in Disaster Fundingâ, British Medical Journal, 2005, 330, 247â50.
85. D. Hilhorst and B. J. Jansen, âHumanitarian Space as Arena: A Perspective on the Everyday Politics of Aidâ, Development and Change, 2010, 41, 6, 1117â39.
86. I. Christoplos, âThe Elusive "Window of Opportunity" for Risk Reduction in Post-Disaster Recoveryâ, Discussion Paper, ProVention Consortium Forum, Strengthening Global Collaboration in Disaster Risk Reduction, Bangkok, 2â3 February 2006.
87. A. Holloway, âCrafting Disaster Risk Science: Environmental and Geographical Science Sans Frontiersâ, Gateways: International Journal of Community Research and Engagement, 2009, 2, 98â118.
Part 15: Influencing Practice
88. D. Alexander, âFrom Civil Defence to Civil Protection and Back Againâ, Disaster Prevention and Management, 2002, 11, 3, 209â13.
89. I. Davis, âFilling the Gapâ, Shelter After Disaster (Oxford Polytechnic Press, 1978), pp. 33â67.
90. C. Green, D. Parker, and E. Penning-Rowsell, âDesigning for Failureâ, in P. Merriman and C. Browitt (eds.), Natural Disasters: Protecting Vulnerable Communities (Thomas Telford, 1993), pp. 78â91.
91. I. Burton, âForensic Disaster Investigations in Depth: A New Case Study Modelâ, Environment: Science and Policy for Sustainable Development, 2010, 52, 5, 36â41.
92. G. Wilches-Chaux, âThe Reconstruction Program Developed in Popayan by a Professional Training Institutionâ, Proceedings of the International Conference on Disaster Mitigation Program Implementation (Ocho Rios, Jamaica, 12â16 November 1984), pp. 291â305.
Part 16: Influencing Society and Culture
93. S. H. Prince, âCatastrophe and Social Changeâ (PhD dissertation, Columbia University, 1920), pp. 118â40.
94. T. E. Drabeck and E. L. Quarantelli, âScapegoats; Villains; and Disastersâ, Trans-action, March 1967, 12â17.
95. C. Starr and C. Whipple, âRisks of Risk Decisionsâ, Science, 1980, 208, 4448, 1114â19.
96. P. Winchester, âCyclone Mitigation, Resource Allocation and Post-Disaster Reconstruction in South India: Lessons from Two Decades of Researchâ, Disasters, 2000, 241, 18â37.
97. R. S. Olson, J. P. Sarmiento, and G. Hoberman, âEstablishing Public Accountability, Speaking Truth to Power and Inducing Political Will for Disaster Risk Reduction: "Ocho Rios + 25"â, Environmental Hazards, 2011, 10, 1 59â68.
98. J. Lewis, âThe Worm in the Bud: Corruption, Construction and Catastropheâ, in L. Bosher (ed.), Hazards and the Built Environment: Attaining Built-in Resilience (Routledge, 2008), pp. 238â63.