1st Edition

Disasters 2.0 The Application of Social Media Systems for Modern Emergency Management

By Adam Crowe Copyright 2012
    322 Pages 89 B/W Illustrations
    by CRC Press

    Emerging social media and so-called Web 2.0 technologies will continue to have a great impact on the practice and application of the emergency management function in every public safety sector. Disasters 2.0: The Application of Social Media Systems for Modern Emergency Management prepares emergency managers and first responders to successfully apply social media principles in the operations, logistics, planning, finance, and administrative aspects of any given disaster.

    Using real-life examples of domestic and international disasters, the book reveals how social media has quickly become a powerful tool for both providing emergency instruction to the public in real time and allowing responding agencies to communicate among themselves in crisis. A definitive and comprehensive source, the book explores topics such as:

    • Social media basics
    • Citizen journalism
    • Strategic implementation
    • Safety and responsibility
    • Monitoring and analytics
    • Operational implementation
    • Geolocation systems
    • Crowdsourcing
    • Public notification
    • Mobile and other emerging technologies

    Each chapter begins with a list of objectives and includes a collection of case examples of social media use in past events. Practitioner profiles show real people implementing the technology for real solutions. Demonstrating how to effectively apply social media technology to the next crisis, this is a must-read book for those charged with disaster management and response.

    Section I: Social Media, Organizational Engagement, and the Impact of Citizens
    Introduction to the Application of Social Media in Modern Emergency Management
    Modern Emergency Management
    The Rise of Social Media
    Social Media Users
    Centralized versus Decentralized Organizational Structure
    Systems Fade, Concepts Remain
    Overview of Chapters
    Practitioner Profile: Jeannette Sutton, PhD, Disaster Sociologist
    Social Media Systems: Overview and Purpose
    Foundations of Social Media
    Social Networks
    Photo Sharing
    Video Sharing
    Video Streaming
    Skype and Video Calling
    Other Systems
    Practitioner Profile: Hal Grieb, Previstar
    Citizen Journalism: The Rise and Impact of New Media
    Journalism—Traditional and Participatory
    Acceptance by the General Public
    Acceptance by News Media
    Available Tools of a Citizen Journalist
    Challenges to Citizen Journalism
    Practitioner Profile: Tom Erickson, Johnson County Sheriff’s Office
    Mountains or Molehills: Engagement Challenges in the Application of Social Media
    Hurdles and Hindrances
    Programmatic Implementation
    The Challenge of Privacy
    Policy Implementation
    Challenges to Implementation
    Practitioner Profile: Jason Lindesmith, Federal Emergency
    Management Agency Headquarters
    The Yellow Tape Conundrum: Citizen and Responder Responsibility
    A Change in Public Expectations
    Rise of New Systems
    Incident-Based Risk
    First Responder Responsibility
    Citizen Responsibility
    Social Media "How" versus Social Media "Why"
    Practitioner Profile: Alisha Griswold, Medical Reserve Corps, Kansas City
    Section II: Social Media Policy, Procedure, Integration, and Analysis
    Who’s the Sheriff in These Parts? Monitoring and Analysis of Social Media Information
    Traditional Media Monitoring
    Social Media Monitoring
    Real-Time Instantaneous Monitoring
    Real-Time Collective Monitoring
    Basic Monitoring Analytics
    Measuring Influence and Success
    Practitioner Profile: Ethan M. Riley, Arizona Division of Emergency Management
    White Hot or White Noise? Aggregation and Validation of Social Media Information
    Impact of Demographics
    Power of Aggregation
    Theory of Social Validation
    The Power of the Virtual Voice
    RSS and Other Aggregation Tools
    Integration with Traditional Systems
    Practitioner Profile: Lee Arning, Southern Methodist University
    When Status Quo Becomes Obsolete: Modern Integrated Emergency Warning and Notification Strategies
    The Fallacy of Traditional Approaches
    Mobility and Portability
    Dynamic and Diverse Emergency Notification Strategies
    Next Generation 9-1-1
    Limitations to Modernization
    Practitioner Profile: Walt Way, Johnson County Emergency Communications Center
    Volunteer and Donations Management 2.0: How Social Media Has Revolutionized the Management and Recruitment of People and Supplies
    Demographics of Volunteerism
    Contemporary Volunteer Management
    Voluntweeters and Other Crowdsourcing Opportunities
    Donations Management 2.0
    Measurements of Success
    Practitioner Profile: Heather Blanchard, Co-Founder of Crisis Commons
    The Elephant in the Emergency Operations Center: The Fundamental Flaw within Formal Response Systems
    National Preparedness and Response Systems
    Conflicts and Contradictions
    Take the Filter Off
    Contrasting Opinions
    Challenges to Social Media and Exercise Management
    Practitioner Profile: Gerald Baron, Public Relations and Crisis Communications Consultant
    Section III: Social Media Tools and the Power of Virtual Community
    It Takes a Village to Raise a Prepared Community: The Power and Purpose of Crowdsourcing
    What Is Crowdsourcing?
    How Crowdsourcing Works
    Witnessing Disaster
    Crowdsourcing by Virtual Volunteers
    Organizational Implementation of Crowdsourcing
    Crowdsourcing by Impacted Citizens
    Crowdsourcing Usage by Governmental Response
    Practitioner Profile: Jim Garrow, Philadelphia Department of Public Health
    The Beaten Browser: The Rise of Video, Voice, and Information on the Go
    The Web Is Changing
    The Rise of Mobile Engagement
    Mobile Apps in Disaster Response
    The Rise of User-Controlled Video Information
    Information via Voice Systems
    Information on the Go
    Practitioner Profile: Lach Mullin, Benton County Emergency
    Location, Location, Location: The Power of Geospatial Technologies and the Environment on Social Systems
    Location-Based Social Networking
    Potential Emergency Management Uses of Location-Based Social Networking
    Impact of Geospatial Programming
    Enhanced Information via Physical Interface
    Practitioner Profile: Cheryl Bledsoe, Clark Regional Emergency Services
    Get Your Head into the Cloud: Available Tools and Systems to Improve Emergency Management Functions
    Open Government and Gamification
    Functional and Accessibility Challenges
    Hackers, Zombies, and Second Life: Potential Improvements to Operational Efficiency
    Additional Web 2.0 and Social Media Tools
    Collaborative and Contributory Systems
    Practitioner Profile: Kim Stephens, Emergency Management Researcher, Practitioner, and Blogger
    Appendix A: Disasters Referenced by Chapter
    Appendix B: Answer Key


    Adam Crowe, CEM, MPA, Assistant Director, Johnson County Emergency Management & Homeland Security, Kansas, USA