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Disasters 2.0
The Application of Social Media Systems for Modern Emergency Management




ISBN 9781439874424
Published April 10, 2012 by CRC Press
321 Pages 89 B/W Illustrations

 
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Book Description

Emerging social media and so-called Web 2.0 technologies will continue to have a great impact on the practice and application of the emergency management function in every public safety sector. Disasters 2.0: The Application of Social Media Systems for Modern Emergency Management prepares emergency managers and first responders to successfully apply social media principles in the operations, logistics, planning, finance, and administrative aspects of any given disaster.

Using real-life examples of domestic and international disasters, the book reveals how social media has quickly become a powerful tool for both providing emergency instruction to the public in real time and allowing responding agencies to communicate among themselves in crisis. A definitive and comprehensive source, the book explores topics such as:

  • Social media basics
  • Citizen journalism
  • Strategic implementation
  • Safety and responsibility
  • Monitoring and analytics
  • Operational implementation
  • Geolocation systems
  • Crowdsourcing
  • Public notification
  • Mobile and other emerging technologies

Each chapter begins with a list of objectives and includes a collection of case examples of social media use in past events. Practitioner profiles show real people implementing the technology for real solutions. Demonstrating how to effectively apply social media technology to the next crisis, this is a must-read book for those charged with disaster management and response.

Table of Contents

Section I: Social Media, Organizational Engagement, and the Impact of Citizens
Introduction to the Application of Social Media in Modern Emergency Management
Modern Emergency Management
The Rise of Social Media
Social Media Users
Centralized versus Decentralized Organizational Structure
Systems Fade, Concepts Remain
Overview of Chapters
Practitioner Profile: Jeannette Sutton, PhD, Disaster Sociologist
Social Media Systems: Overview and Purpose
Foundations of Social Media
Social Networks
Blogs
Microblogs
Photo Sharing
Video Sharing
Video Streaming
Skype and Video Calling
Other Systems
Practitioner Profile: Hal Grieb, Previstar
Citizen Journalism: The Rise and Impact of New Media
Journalism—Traditional and Participatory
Acceptance by the General Public
Acceptance by News Media
Available Tools of a Citizen Journalist
Challenges to Citizen Journalism
Practitioner Profile: Tom Erickson, Johnson County Sheriff’s Office
Mountains or Molehills: Engagement Challenges in the Application of Social Media
Hurdles and Hindrances
Programmatic Implementation
The Challenge of Privacy
Policy Implementation
Challenges to Implementation
Practitioner Profile: Jason Lindesmith, Federal Emergency
Management Agency Headquarters
The Yellow Tape Conundrum: Citizen and Responder Responsibility
A Change in Public Expectations
Rise of New Systems
Incident-Based Risk
First Responder Responsibility
Citizen Responsibility
Social Media "How" versus Social Media "Why"
Practitioner Profile: Alisha Griswold, Medical Reserve Corps, Kansas City
Section II: Social Media Policy, Procedure, Integration, and Analysis
Who’s the Sheriff in These Parts? Monitoring and Analysis of Social Media Information
Traditional Media Monitoring
Social Media Monitoring
Real-Time Instantaneous Monitoring
Real-Time Collective Monitoring
Basic Monitoring Analytics
Measuring Influence and Success
Practitioner Profile: Ethan M. Riley, Arizona Division of Emergency Management
White Hot or White Noise? Aggregation and Validation of Social Media Information
Impact of Demographics
Power of Aggregation
Theory of Social Validation
The Power of the Virtual Voice
RSS and Other Aggregation Tools
Integration with Traditional Systems
Practitioner Profile: Lee Arning, Southern Methodist University
When Status Quo Becomes Obsolete: Modern Integrated Emergency Warning and Notification Strategies
The Fallacy of Traditional Approaches
Mobility and Portability
Dynamic and Diverse Emergency Notification Strategies
Next Generation 9-1-1
Limitations to Modernization
Practitioner Profile: Walt Way, Johnson County Emergency Communications Center
Volunteer and Donations Management 2.0: How Social Media Has Revolutionized the Management and Recruitment of People and Supplies
Demographics of Volunteerism
Contemporary Volunteer Management
Voluntweeters and Other Crowdsourcing Opportunities
Donations Management 2.0
Measurements of Success
Practitioner Profile: Heather Blanchard, Co-Founder of Crisis Commons
The Elephant in the Emergency Operations Center: The Fundamental Flaw within Formal Response Systems
National Preparedness and Response Systems
Conflicts and Contradictions
Take the Filter Off
Contrasting Opinions
Challenges to Social Media and Exercise Management
Practitioner Profile: Gerald Baron, Public Relations and Crisis Communications Consultant
Section III: Social Media Tools and the Power of Virtual Community
It Takes a Village to Raise a Prepared Community: The Power and Purpose of Crowdsourcing
What Is Crowdsourcing?
How Crowdsourcing Works
Witnessing Disaster
Crowdsourcing by Virtual Volunteers
Organizational Implementation of Crowdsourcing
Crowdsourcing by Impacted Citizens
Crowdsourcing Usage by Governmental Response
Practitioner Profile: Jim Garrow, Philadelphia Department of Public Health
The Beaten Browser: The Rise of Video, Voice, and Information on the Go
The Web Is Changing
The Rise of Mobile Engagement
Mobile Apps in Disaster Response
The Rise of User-Controlled Video Information
Information via Voice Systems
Information on the Go
Practitioner Profile: Lach Mullin, Benton County Emergency
Management
Location, Location, Location: The Power of Geospatial Technologies and the Environment on Social Systems
Location-Based Social Networking
Potential Emergency Management Uses of Location-Based Social Networking
Impact of Geospatial Programming
Enhanced Information via Physical Interface
Practitioner Profile: Cheryl Bledsoe, Clark Regional Emergency Services
Get Your Head into the Cloud: Available Tools and Systems to Improve Emergency Management Functions
Open Government and Gamification
Functional and Accessibility Challenges
Hackers, Zombies, and Second Life: Potential Improvements to Operational Efficiency
Additional Web 2.0 and Social Media Tools
Collaborative and Contributory Systems
Practitioner Profile: Kim Stephens, Emergency Management Researcher, Practitioner, and Blogger
Appendix A: Disasters Referenced by Chapter
Appendix B: Answer Key
Index

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Author(s)

Biography

Adam Crowe, CEM, MPA, Assistant Director, Johnson County Emergency Management & Homeland Security, Kansas, USA