It is estimated that, in the United States, around 20 percent of all Police-reported road crashes involve driver distraction as a contributing factor. This figure increases if other forms of inattention are considered. Evidence (reviewed in this volume) suggests that the situation is similar in other countries and that driver distraction and inattention are even more dangerous as contributing factors in crashes than drug and alcohol intoxication. Having a solid evidence-base from which to develop injury countermeasures is a cornerstone of road-safety management. This book adds to the accumulating evidence-base on driver distraction and inattention. With 24 chapters by 52 authors from more than 10 countries, it provides important new perspectives on the definition and meaning of driver distraction and inattention, the mechanisms that characterize them, the measurement of their effects, strategies for mitigating their effects, and recommendations for further research. The goal of this book is to inspire further research and countermeasure development to prevent and mitigate the potentially adverse effects of driver distraction and driver inattention, and, in doing so, to save lives.
Table of Contents
Foreword. Part I: Introduction. Part II: Distraction and Inattention - Theory, Philosophy, and Definition: Driven to Distraction and Back Again. Attention Selection and Multitasking in Everyday Driving: A Conceptual Model. Driver Distraction and Inattention: A Queuing Theory Approach. The Relationship Between Driver Distraction and Mental Workload. Part III: Visual and Attentional Processes - How is Driving-Related Attention in Driving with Visual Secondary Tasks Controlled? Evidence from Top-Down Attentional Control. Proposing a Risk Monitor Model Based on Emotions and Feelings: Exploring the Boundaries of Perception and Learning. Part IV: Distraction – Crashes and Crash Risk: Driver Distraction and Inattention: Top Crash Causes in the United States of America. Driver Distraction in Commercial Motor Vehicle Operations. Driver Distraction and Inattention and their Role in Crashes in Safety-Critical Events. A Review of Epidemiological Data on the Risks of Using a Telephone while Driving. Drivers’ Perceptions of Risk Linked to Mobile Phone Use While Driving and Implications for the Design of Driver Awareness Campaigns. Part V: Distraction – Measurement: Development and Validation of an Ecological Driver Distraction Evaluation Tool. Oculometric Measures as an Index of Clinical Causes of Driver Drowsiness and Inattention. Part VI: Distraction – Effects on Driving Performance: Driving Whilst Using In-Vehicle Information Systems (IVIS): Benchmarking the Impairment to Alcohol. Part VII: Distraction Countermeasures: Melbourne Drivers’ Observed Use of Mobile Phones: Could there be Unintended Consequences of Partial Bans? The Driver Distraction Algorithm AttenD. Management of Distraction Risk from Mobile Phones in the UK Rail Industry. Part VIII: Conclusions - Distraction and Inattention: Current Themes and Research Directions.
Michael A. Regan is at the University of New South Wales, Australia. He is also an Adjunct Professor with Chalmers University in Gothenburg, Sweden. Between September 1997 and April 2007 he managed the Human Factors and Simulation Group at the Monash University Accident Research Centre (MUARC), in Melbourne, Australia. Michael is the senior editor and a co-author of the first book on driver distraction - "Driver distraction: Theory, Effects and Mitigation", published by CRC Press in 2008 - and initiated and co-chaired the First International Conference on Driver Distraction and Inattention, held in Gothenburg, Sweden, in September 2009. Michael's research interests focus on driver distraction, human interaction with intelligent transport systems (ITS), driving simulation, driver training and human error. He sits on the Editorial Boards of 4 peer-reviewed journals, including Human Factors, and is the author of around 200 publications. He also sits on two Australian, and one international, Standards Committees. In November 2009 Michael received the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society of Australia's Cumming Memorial Medal for highly esteemed human factors and ergonomics research and application in the field of transportation safety. John D. Lee is the Emerson Electric professor in the department of industrial and systems engineering at the University of Wisconsin-Madison. He also holds an appointment in the department of civil and environmental engineering. His research focuses on the safety and acceptance of complex human-machine systems by considering how technology mediates attention. Specific research interests include trust in technology, advanced driver assistance systems, and driver distraction. He is a coauthor of the textbook "An Introduction to Human Factors Engineering" and is the author or coauthor of over 120 articles. John is a co-editor and a co-author of the first book on driver distraction - "Driver distraction: Theory, Effects and Mitigation", published by CRC Press in 2008. He received the Ely Award for best paper in the journal Human Factors (2002), the best paper award for the journal Ergonomics (2005), and a Donald E. Bently Faculty Fellowship. He is a member of the National Academy of Sciences committee on human factors and has served on several other committees for the National Academy of Sciences. Dr. Lee serves on the editorial boards of Cognitive Engineering and Decision Making; Cognition, Technology and Work; International Journal of Human Factors Modeling and Simulation; and is the associate editor for the journal Human Factors. Trent W. Victor, PhD, is currently working as Senior Specialist in Safety Analysis and Human Factors at Volvo Technology, a research and innovation company in the Volvo Group. In addition he is Competence Area Leader for Behavior in Accident Causation at SAFER vehicle- and traffic safety centre at Chalmers technical university. Trent has formal training in psychology (specialized in attention, vision, perception, eye-movements), computer science, human factors, and human-machine interaction. Trent has held various positions at Volvo Technology since 1996 including Product Area Manager for Driver & Work Environment, and Group Manager for Cognitive Ergonomics. Trent has over 15 years work experience in design and evaluation in the field of Intelligent Transportation Systems, from research to product introduction phases, especially on In-Vehicle Information Systems and Advanced Driver Assistance Systems, and most specifically on Driver Awareness Products. Trent holds over 13 patents or patent applications within the product areas of real-time distraction countermeasures, drowsiness alert, interaction support (workload management), attention-sensitive driving support, impairment detection, and distraction evaluation tools. He has been responsible for the spin-off of a computer vision eye tracking company where he sits on the board of directors. Trent co-chaired the First International Conference on Driver Distraction and Inattention, held in Gothenburg, Sweden, in September 2009. He is the author of more than 30 publications including journal articles, conference papers, book chapters, technical reports.