Ever since the Shanghai convention in 1909, the threat posed to human well-being by drug abuse has led countries around the world to take action to deal with their drug problems. There are wide variations in the policies pursued, but most countries try to reduce both the supply of and the demand for drugs. Unfortunately, there is little research consensus on the respective merits of these two approaches or about the best ways to pursue them. Consequently, control and prevention policies are mostly driven by political considerations, economic realities and cultural expectations, though research has played an important part in formulating and evaluating treatments for drug addiction. This volume reviews studies on drug abuse prevention and treatment strategies under five main areas: 1. Reducing supply - strategies to control the flow of drugs from production to retail distribution; 2. Reducing demand - prevention of drug use at all stages of involvement and consumption levels; 3. Reducing harm - promoting situational risk reduction practices for regular users, addicts and recreational users; 4. Reducing addiction - drug treatment options for various groups in various settings; and 5. Drug policies and prescriptions - focused on debates about prohibition and legalization.
Contents: Introduction; Part I Reducing Supply: Evaluating explanations of the Australian 'heroin shortage', Loisa Degenhardt, Peter Reuter, Linette Collins and Wayne Hall; Changes in Canadian heroin supply coinciding with the Australian heroin shortage, Evan Wood, Jo-Anne Stoltz, Kathy Li, Julio Montaner and Thomas Kerr; Strategies to avoid arrest: crack sellers' response to intensified policing, Bruce D. Johnson and Mangai Natarajan; A spatial analysis of green teams: a tactical response to marijuana production in British Columbia, Aili E. Malm and George E. Tita; Police officers on drug corners in Philadelphia: drug crime, and violent crime: intended, diffusion, and displacement impacts, Brian A. Lawton, Ralph B. Taylor and Anthony J. Luongo; The multilateralization of policing: the case of illicit synthetic drug control, Adrian Cherney, Juani O'Reilly and Peter Grabosky. Part II Reducing Demand: Reports of substance abuse prevention programming available in schools, Zili Sloboda, Amod Pyakuryal, Peggy C. Stephens, Brent Teasdale, David Forrest, Richard C. Stephens and Scott F. Grey; Promoting science-based prevention in communities, J. David Hawkins, Richard F. Catalano and Michael W. Arthur; Faith-based prevention model: a rural African-American case study, Adam E. Barry, Mary S. Sutherland and Gregory J. Harris; Assessing the effects of school based drug-education: a 6-year multilevel analysis of Project DARE, Dennis P. Rosenbaum and Gordon S. Hanson; Effectiveness of community-based outreach in preventing HIV/AIDS among injecting drug users, Richard H. Needle, Dave Burrows, Samuel R. Friedman, Jimmy Dorabjee, Graziele Touzé, Larissa Badrieva; Jean-Paul Grund, Munirathinam Suresh Kumar, Luciano Nigro, Greg Manning and Carl Latkin; Evaluation of a media campaign aimed at preventing initiation into drug injection among street youth, Ã‰lise Roy, Véronique Denis, Natalia Gutiérrez, Nancy Haley, Carole Morissette and Jean-FranÃ§ois Boudreau. Part III Reducing the Harms or Risks Associated with Drug Abuse: HIV incidence among injection drug users in New York City, 1990 to 2002: use of serologic test algorithm to assess expansion of HIV prevention services, Don C. Des Jarlais, Theresa Perlis, Kamyar Arasteh, Lucia V. Torian, Sara Beatrice, Judith Milliken, Donna Mildvan, Stanley Yancovitz and Samuel R. Friedman; Patterns of HIV prevalence and HIV risk behaviors among injection drug users prior to and 24 months following implementation of cross-border HIV prevention interventions in Northern Vietnam and Southern China, Theodore M. Hammett, Ryan Kling, Patrick Johnston, Wei Liu, Doan Ngu, Patricia Friedmann, Kieu Thanh Binh, Ha Viet Dong, Ly Kieu Van, Meng Donghua, Yi Chen and Don C. Des Jarlais; Full participation in harm reduction programmes is associated with decreased risk for human immunodeficiency virus and hepatitis C virus: evidence from Amsterdam cohort studies among drug users, Charlotte van den Berg, Colette Smit, Giel van Brussel, Roel Coutinho and Maria Prins; Characteristics of young illicit drug injectors who use North America's first medically supervised safer injecting facility, Jo-Anne M. Stoltz, Evan Wood, Cari Miller, Will Small, Kathy Li, Mark Tyndall, Julio Montaner and Thomas Kerr; Incidence of heroin use in Zurich, Switzerland: a treatment case register analysis, Carlos Nordt and Rudolf Stohler; Substance use and quality of life over 12 months among buprenorphine maintenance-treated and methadone maintenance-treated heroin-addicted patients, Icro Maremmani, Pier Paolo Pani, Matteo Pacini and Giulio Perugi. Part IV Reducing Addiction through Treatment and Rehabilitation: The effectiveness of drug abuse treatment: a meta-analysis of comparison group studies, Michael L. Prendergast, Deborah Podus, Eunice Chang and Darren Urada; Different needs: women's drug use and treatment in the UK, Mark Simpson and Julie McNulty; Assessing sex differences on treatment effectiveness from the Drug Abuse Treatment Outcome Study (DATOS), Suddhasatta Acharyya and Heping Zhang; Behavioral treatment approaches for methamphetamine dependence and HIV-related sexual risk behaviors among urban gay and bisexual men, Steven Shoptaw, Cathy J. Reback, James A. Peck, Xiaowei Yang, Erin Rotheram-Fuller, Sherry Larkins, Rosemary C. Veniegas, Thomas E. Freese and Christopher Hucks-Ortiz; Drug user treatment within a criminal justice context, Mike Hough; Substance use, drug treatment and crime: an examination of intra-individual variation in a drug court population, Denise C. Gottfredson, Brook W. Kearley and Shawn D. Bushway. Part V Drug Policy and Prescriptions: To legalize or not to legalize? Economic approaches to the decriminalization of drugs, Anne Line Bretteville-Jensen; The economics of drug prohibition and drug legalization, Jeffrey A. Miron; Drug policy developments within the European Union: the destabilizing effects of Dutch and Swedish drug policies, Caroline Chatwin; Interpreting Dutch cannabis policy: reaso