1st Edition

Drugs, Alcohol and Addiction in the Long Nineteenth Century

Edited By Daniel Malleck
    2053 Pages
    by Routledge

    This collection captures key themes and issues in the broad history of addiction and vice in the Anglo-American world. Focusing on the long nineteenth-century, the volumes consider how scientific, social, and cultural experiences with drugs, alcohol, addiction, gambling, and prostitution varied around the world. What might be considered vice, or addiction could be interpreted in various ways, through various lenses, and such activities were interpreted differently depending upon the observer: the medical practitioner; the evangelical missionary; the thrill seeking bon-vivant, and the concerned government commissioner, to name but a few. For example, opium addiction in middle class households resulting from medical treatment was judged much differently than Chinese opium smoking by those in poverty or poor living conditions in North American work camps on the west coast, or on the streets of East London.

    This collection will assemble key documents representing both the official and general view of these various activities, providing readers with a cross section of interpretations and a solid grounding in the material that shaped policy change, cultural interpretation, and social action.

    Drugs, Alcohol, and Addiction in the Long Nineteenth Century

    Edited by Dan Malleck

    Volume 1: Drunks, fiends, and the roots of concern

    Part 1. The drug habit and its confessionals

    1. Thomas DeQuincey, Confessions of an English Opium Eater, 2nd ed. (London: Taylor and Hessey, Fleet St., 1823), pp. 156-73.
    2. Walter Colton, ‘Effects of Opium’, The Knickerbocker, 7, 1836, 421-23.
    3. William Blair, ‘An Opium-Eater in America’, The Knickerbocker, 20, 1842, 47-57.
    4. Sigma, ‘Opium-Eating’, Lippincott’s Magazine, 1, 1868, 404-9.
    5. H. G. Cole, Confessions of an American Opium Eater: From Bondage to Freedom (Boston: James H Earle, 1895), pp. 5-7, 8-9, 27-32, 47-50, 107-119.
    6. A. Calkins, ‘Opium-Literature in the Reflex View’, in Opium and the Opium Appetite (Philadelphia: J Lippincott, 1871), pp. 88-98.
    7. Part 2. Drug use observed

    8. Anon, ‘Use of Opiates Among the Operative Population’, Chambers Edinburgh Journal, 3, 1845, 346-48.
    9. Anon, ‘The Narcotics We Indulge In’, Blackwood's Edinburgh Magazine, 74, 1853, part 1, 129-39, part 2, 605-28.
    10. Part 3. Cannabis

    11. William Brooke O’Shaughnessy, On the Preparation of the Indian Hemp, or Gunjah, 1839, p. 7-13, 19-20, 36-37.
    12. F. H. Ludlow, ‘Introduction’, ‘The Night Entrance’, ‘Under the Shadow of Esculapius’, and ‘The Kingdom of the Dream’, in The Hasheesh Eater: Being Passages from the Life of a Pythagorean (New York: Harper & Brother, 1857), pp. ix-xiv; 15-43
    13. Victor Robinson, An Essay on Hasheesh, including Observations and Experiments (New York: Medical Review of Reviews, 1912), pp. 38-51, 65-83.
    14. Part 4. Drink and the dilemma of habit

    15. Benjamin Rush, An Inquiry into the Effects of Ardent Spirits upon the Human Body and Mind, 6th ed. (New York: Cornelius Davis, 1811), pp. 1-32.
    16. Thomas Trotter, ‘Introduction’ and ‘Definition of Drunkenness’, in An Essay Medical, Philosophical, and Chemical on Drunkenness and its Effects on the Human Body 1st Philadelphia Edition, (Philadelphia: Anthony Finley, 1813), pp. 11-22.
    17. R. Macnish, The Anatomy of Drunkenness: An Inaugural Essay (Glasgow: W. R. McPhun, 1827), pp. 1-28.
    18. Part 5. The virtues of drink

    19. Erasmus Darwin, ‘On Drunkenness’, Zoonomia; or the Laws of Organic Life (Fourth American edition, 1818), pp. 191-197
    20. Edward Cutbush, Observations on the Means of Preserving the Health of Soldiers and Sailors, (Philadelphia: Thomas Dobson, 1808), pp. 22-30.
    21. Francis E. Anstie, On the Uses of Wines in Health and Disease (New York: J. S. Redfield, 1870), pp. 7-48.
    22. G. G. Gervinus, Art of Drinking: A Historical Sketch (New York: United States Brewers’ Association, 1890), pp. 5-23.
    23. Part 6. Places and spaces

    24. Charles Dickens, Barnaby Rudge: A Tale of the Riots of Eighty (London: George Routledge and Sons, 1884 [1841]), pp. 172-73.
    25. Charles Dickens, ‘The Dawn’, in The Mystery of Edwin Drood (London: Chapman and Hall 1870), pp. 1-3.
    26. Anon, ‘East London Opium Smokers’, London Society, 14, 1868, 68-72.
    27. J. Platt, ‘Chinese London and its Opium Dens’, Gentleman's Magazine, 279, 1895, 272-82.
    28. E. C. Moore, ‘The Social Value of the Saloon’, American Journal of Sociology 3, July 1897, 1-12.
    29. Royal L. Melendy, ‘The Saloon in Chicago’, American Journal of Sociology 6, November 1900, 289-306.
    30. Anon, ‘The Experience and Observations of a New York Saloon-Keeper as Told by Himself’, McClure Magazine 32, January 1909, 301-12.
    31. Hutchins Hapgood, ‘McSorley's Saloon’, Harper's Weekly, 58, 25 October 1913, 15.

    Volume 2: Healers discovering and treating addiction

    Part 1. Is the opium habit a problem?

    1. George W. Carpenter, ‘Observations and Experiments on Opium’, American Journal of Science and Arts, 13, 1828, 17-32.
    2. R. Christison, ‘On the Effects of Opium Eating on Health and Longevity’, Edinburgh Medical and Surgical Journal, 37, 1832, 123-35
    3. G. R. Mart, ‘Effects of the Practice of Opium Eating’, Lancet, 1, 1831-32, 712-13.
    4. John Eberle, ‘Effects of Opium Eating’, Boston Medical and Surgical Journal, 6, 4 April 1832, 128-31.
    5. Robert Little, ‘On the Habitual Use of Opium’, Monthly Journal of Medical Science, 10, 1850, 524-531.
    6. Robert Christison, ‘Supplement to the Preceding Paper [by Little] on the Habitual Use of Opium, More Especially the Mode of Cure’, Monthly Journal of Medical Science, 10, 1850, 531-38.
    7. A. Calkins, ‘Opium Contrasted with Alcoholic Beverages’, in Opium and the Opium Appetite (Philadelphia: J Lippincott, 1871), pp. 277-86
    8. Part 2. Growing problem of iatrogenic morphine.

    9. D. McGillivray, ‘Excessive Use of Morphia, a DRAHM of the Sulphate taken at one Dose with Impunity’, Canada Medical Journal, 5, 1869, 352-54.
    10. J. B. Mattison, ‘The Impending Danger’, Medical Record, 11, 1876, 69-71.
    11. C. R. Francis, ‘On the Value and Use of Opium’, Medical Times and Gazette 1, 1882, 87-9, 116-17
    12. W. S. Watson, ‘On the Evil of Opium Eating’, JAMA, 14, 10 May 1890, 671-74.
    13. T. D. Crothers, ‘Criminality and Morphinism’, New York Medical Journal, 95, 1912, 163-65 .
    14. Part 3. Cocaine: Miracle cure?

    15. H. F. Stimmel, ‘Coca in the Opium and Alcohol Habits’, Therapeutic Gazette, ns 2, 15 April 1881, 132-33; 15 July 1881, 252-53.
    16. George LeForger, ‘Coca in the Opium Habit’, Therapeutic Gazette, 6, 1882, 458.
    17. J. P. Marsh, ‘A Case of the Opium Habit Treated with Erythroxylon Coca’, Therapeutic Gazette, 7, 1883, 359.
    18. S. Freud, ‘Coca’, [Trans S. Pollack] St. Louis Medical and Surgical Journal, 47, 1884, 502-5.
    19. Part 4. Cocaine a menace

    20. W. A. Hammond, ‘Remarks on Cocaine and the So-called Cocaine Habit’, Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 13, 1886, 754-58.
    21. J. B. Mattison, ‘Cocainism’, Medical Record, 42, 1892, 474-477; 43, 1893, 34-36.
    22. Stephen Lett, ‘Cocaine Addiction and its Diagnosis’, Canada Lancet, 31, December 1898, 829-32.
    23. Anon, ‘Cocaine Alley’, American Druggist and Pharmaceutical Record, 37, 10 Dec 1900, 337-38.
    24. Anon, ‘Negro Cocaine Fiends’, Medical News, 81, 1902, 895.
    25. T. D. Crothers, ‘Cocainism’, Quarterly Journal of Inebriety, 32, 1910, 78-84.
    26. Part 5. Heroin, no great solution

    27. W. Blair Stewart, ‘Heroin’, Medical Bulletin, 23, 1901, 86-88.
    28. George E. Pettey, ‘The Heroin Habit Another Curse’, Alabama Medical Journal, 15, 1903, 174-80.
    29. John Phillips, ‘Prevalence of the Heroin Habit: Especially the Use of the Drug by "Snuffing"', JAMA 59, 14 December 1912, 2146-47.
    30. Part 6. Considering drink, inebriety, and cure.

    31. W. B. Carpenter, ‘Introduction’, Physiology of Temperance and Total Abstinence, pp. 1-6
    32. G. H. Lewes, ‘Physiological Errors of Teetotalism’, Westminster Review, 8, July 1855, 94-124.
    33. W. B. Carpenter, ‘To the Editor of the "Westminster Review"’, Westminster Review, 65, January 1856, 218-20.
    34. George M. Beard, ‘Causes of the Recent Increase of Inebriety in America’, Quarterly Journal of Inebriety, 1, December 1876, 25-48.
    35. Rev. John Willett, ‘The Dogma of Human Responsibility: More Especially as it Related to Inebriety’, Quarterly Journal of Inebriety, 1, Sept 1877, 193-211.
    36. W. W. Godding, ‘The Problem of the Inebriate’, JAMA, 8, 8 January 1887, 29-32.
    37. W. A. Hammond, T. D. Crothers, E. N. Carpenter and C. Edson, ‘Is Drunkenness Curable?’, North American Review, 153, 1891, 346-74.
    38. Walter T. Harris, ‘Alcohol: A Poison, a Medicine, a Luxury’, South African Medical Journal, 3, November 1895, 184-91.
    39. William C. Sullivan, ‘The Criminal Responsibility of the Alcoholic’, British Journal of Inebriety, 2, 1904-5, 48-53.
    40. Charles P. Emerson, ‘Alcoholism and Disease’, The Survey, 25, October 1910, 41-46
    41. Part 7. Hypodermic drug use

    42. F. E. Anstie, ‘The Hypodermic Injection of Remedies’, Practitioner, 1, 1868, 32-41.
    43. Clifford Albutt, ‘On the Abuse of Hypodermic Injections of Morphia’, Practitioner, 5, 1870, 327-30.
    44. F. E. Anstie, ‘On the Effects of the Prolonged Use of Morphia by Subcutaneous Injection’, Practitioner, 6, March 1871, 148-57.
    45. Part 8. The role of professionals in growth of addiction

    46. J. B. Mattison, ‘The Responsibility of the Profession in the Production of Opium Inebriety’, Medical and Surgical Reporter, 38, 1878, 101-4.
    47. J. B. Mattison, ‘Morphinism in Medical Men’, JAMA, 23, 1894, 186-88.
    48. T. D. Crothers, ‘Morphinism among Physicians’, Medical Record, 56, 1899, 784-86.
    49. Richard Dewey, ‘Addiction to Drugs, Especially in Reference to the Medical Profession’, Medical Age, 18, 1900, 321-25.
    50. T. J. Happel, ‘Morphinism from the Standpoint of the General Practitioner’, JAMA, 35, 1900, 407-9
    51. Henry B. Hynson, et al. ‘Report of Committee on Acquirement of the Drug Habit’, Proceedings of the American Pharmaceutical Association, 50, 1902, 567-75
    52. J. H. Beal, ‘An Anti-Narcotic Law’, Proceedings of the American Pharmaceutical Association, 51, 1903, 478-87.
    53. Part 9. Treating the habitue/inebriate/addict

    54. Edward Levinstein, ‘On Morphinomania’, London Medical Record, 4, 1876, 55-58.
    55. Edward Levinstein, Morbid Craving for Morphia, Trans. Charles Harrier (London: Smith Elder &Co, 1878), pp. 1-10.
    56. Benjamin Ward Richardson, ‘Morphia Habitués and their Treatment’, The Asclepiad: A Book of Original Research and Observation (London: Longmans, Green and Company, 1884), pp. 1-31.
    57. S. J. Sharkey, ‘The Treatment of Morphia Habitués by Suddenly Discontinuing the Drug’, Lancet, 29 December 1883, 1130-31.
    58. J. St Thomas Clarke, ‘Treatment of the Habit of Injecting Morphia by Suddenly Discontinuing the Drug’, Lancet, 20 September 1884, 491.
    59. Arthur Wayne Foot, ‘On Morphinism’, Dublin Journal of Medical Science, 88, 2 December 1889, 457-70; Discussion 531-33.
    60. O. Jennings, On the Cure of the Morphia Habit (London: Bailliere, Tindall, and Cox, 1890), pp. 45-68.

      Part 10. Proprietary Medicines as Causes and Cures of Addiction

    62. Leslie E. Keeley, ‘Drunkenness: A Curable Disease’, American Journal of Politics, July 1892, 27-43.
    63. Lewis D. Mason, ‘Patent and Proprietary Medicines as the Cause of the Alcohol and Opium Habit or Other Forms of Narcomania-with some Suggestions as to How the Evil May Be Remedied’, Quarterly Journal of Inebriety, 25, 1903, 1-13.
    64. Anon, ‘Father Murphy Institute’, letter dated March 1904 in ‘Alcoholism ephemera, Box 1’, EPH568, Wellcome Collection.
    65. Murphy Gold Cure Co. (ca. 1894). pamphlet from the Canadian Institute of Historical Microreproductions, CIHM 37243. Original in Thomas Fischer Rare book room, University of Toronto.
    66. Part 11. Institutionalization

    67. Rev. Henry W. Bellows and Prof. Roswell D. Hitchcock, Addresses ...on Behalf of the United States Inebriate Asylum (New York: M. B. Wynkoop, 1855), pp. 3-18.
    68. Alexander Peddie, ‘Appendix’, in The Necessity for Some Legalised Arrangements for the Treatment of Dipsomania, or the Drinking Insanity (Edinburgh: Sutherland and Knox, 1858), pp. 31-36.
    69. Anon, ‘Our Inebriates: Classified and Clarified by an Inmate of the New York State Inebriate Asylum’, Atlantic Monthly, April 1869, 477-83.
    70. Anon, ‘Our Inebriates: Harbored and Helped, by an Inmate of the New York Inebriate Asylum’, Atlantic Monthly, July 1869, 109-19.
    71. ‘Inebriate Asylums’, Royal Commission on Asylums for the Insane and Inebriate, Colony of Victoria, 1886, xvii-xx, cxix-cxxii.
    72. J. W. Grosvenor, ‘What Shall We Do with Our Alcoholic Inebriates?’, Bulletin of the American Academic of Medicine, 2, June 1895, 119-28.
    73. Arnold A. Watkins, ‘Inebriety or Narcomania, South African Medical Journal, 4, July 1896, 53-56.
    74. Charles A. Rosenwasser, ‘A Plea for the Establishment of Hospitals for the Rational Treatment of Inebriates’, Medical Record, 8, May 1909, 795-98.

    Volume 3: Efforts to control, restrict, and prohibit: Alcohol

    Part 1. Against ardent spirits. Early temperance

    1. Lyman Gilbert, Reasons for Temperance: A Discourse, Delivered at the Anniversary of the Newton Temperance Society and Lyceum, January 21 1829 (Boston: Lincoln & Edmands, 1829), pp. 3-24.
    2. American Temperance Society, Permanent Temperance Documents of the American Temperance Society Vol 1 (Boston, MA: Seth Bliss and Perkins, Marvin, and Co., 1835), pp. 1-14; Appendix A, pp 63-64.
    3. Testimony of Rev Father Chiniquy, ‘Report of the Select Committee appointed to inquire whether any, and what measures can be adopted to repress the evils growing out of intemperance’, Journals of the Legislative Assembly of the Province of Canada 1849 (Appendix ZZZ).
    4. Frederick Douglas, ‘Father Matthew’, 1849, The Frederick Douglass Papers at the Library of Congress Manuscript/Mixed Material.
    5. Charles Lenox Remond, ‘Untitled Speech on Temperance and Slavery’, Liberator, 30 October 1840.
    6. Frances E. W. Harper, ‘John Anderson’s Saloon’, in Sowing and Reaping: A Temperance Story. [nd]
    7. Joseph Livesey, Lecture on Malt Liquor (London: National Temperance League Publication Depot, nd), pp. 2-16.
    8. Part 2. Well organized, institutionalized late century temperance

    9. T. S. Arthur, ‘The Drunkard’s Bible’, and ‘Signing the Pledge’, in Six Nights with the Washingtonians and other Temperance Tales (Philadelphia: T B Peterson and Brothers, 1871), pp. 89-92, 101-106.
    10. Frances E. Willard, ‘W. C. T. U. Work for the Home’, and ‘My First Home Protection Address’, Woman and Temperance (Hartford, Conn.: Park Publishing Co., 1884), pp. 235-54, 450-59.
    11. Letitia Youmans, ‘Visit to Toronto’, Campaign Echoes: The Autobiography of Mrs. Letitia Youmans (Toronto: William Briggs, 1893), pp. 133-40.
    12. John Burns, Labour and Drink (Bristol: Western Temperance Press, 1914), pp. 1-3, 8-9, 11-13, 15, 22-26, 29-30, 39-40, 44-45, 49-51.
    13. P. Snowden, ‘The Problem Stated’, in Socialism and the Drink Question (London: Independent Labour Party, 1908): 1-17.
    14. Lilian Brandt, ‘Alcoholism and Social Problems’, The Survey, 25, October 1910, 17-22.
    15. Part 3. The industry fights back

    16. Thomann, Gallus, Real and Imaginary Effects of Intemperance (New York: US Brewers Association, 1884), pp. 34-39 66-72, 84-88, 94-99.
    17. Joseph W. Warren, ‘Alcohol Again: A Consideration of Recent Misstatements of its Physiological Action’, Boston Medical and Surgical Journal, 117, 1, 1887, 25-29.
    18. T. C. Down, The Teetotal Tyrant: Being Illustrations of Teetotal Methods Under a Prohibitory Liquor Law Together with Remarks on the Present Position in Great Britain (London: .J S. Philips, 1898), pp. 7-16.
    19. Charles W. Eliot, ‘A Summary of Investigations Concerning the Legislative Aspects of the Liquor Problem’, in The Liquor Problem: A Summary of investigations conducted by the Committee of Fifty 1893-1903 prepared by John S. Billings, Charles, W. Eliot, Henry W. Farnmahm, Jacob L. Greene, And Francis G. Peabody (Boston and New York: Houghton, Mifflin and Co, 1905), pp. 45-78.
    20. Part 4. Solutions to the problem: Prohibition and local option

    21. H. S. Clubb, The Maine Liquor Law: Its Origin, History, and Results (New York: Fowler and Wells, 1856), pp. 88-89, 92-98.
    22. F. R. Lees, ‘That the Legislative Prohibition of the Liquor Traffic is Perfectly Compatible with Rational Liberty, and with All the Claims of Justice and Legitimate Commerce’, An Argument for the Legislative Prohibition of the Liquor Traffic (Manchester: United Kingdom Alliance, 1856), pp. 133-47.
    23. E. King Dodds, The Scott Act: Reasons Why the Electors Should Vote Against It. Temperance by Act of Parliament a Farce (Toronto: Lovell Brothers, 1880), pp. 2-5.
    24. H. J. Ellison, Local Option-Local Control (Edinburgh: John Menzies, 1882), pp. 3-14.
    25. S. E. Nicholson, ‘The Local-Option Movement’, Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 32, November 1908, 1-5.
    26. P. A. Baker, ‘Report of General Superintendent of the Anti-Saloon League of America: A Backward Glance’, Proceedings of the Fifteenth National Convention of the Anti-Saloon League of America, Twenty Year Jubilee Convention (Westerville, OH: American Issue Publishing Co, 1913): 56-70.
    27. Part 5. Solutions to the problem: Licensing

    28. House of Commons [UK] Report from the Select Committee on Inquiry into Drunkenness with Minutes of Evidence and Appendix, 5 August 1834, p. iii-xi.
    29. House of Lords [UK] Report from the Select Committee of the House of Lords Appointed to Consider the Operation of the Acts for the Sale of Beer and to Report Thereon to the House together with the Minutes of Evidence (Sessions 1849 & 1850), pp. iii-vii.
    30. ‘Report Relative to the General Working of the Tavern and Shop Licenses Acts’, Sessional Paper No 7, Sessional Papers of the Province of Ontario, (1874), pp. 15-20.
    31. Ontario, ‘License Report’, Sessional Paper #42, Sessional Papers of Ontario (1877) Schedule F report by Henry Totten, pp. 32-35.
    32. Royal Commission on the Liquor Traffic, Sessional Papers (no. 21), Minutes of Evidence, Vol 1, Evidence of Charles C. Pearce, License Inspector, Owen Sound, 20 October 1893, pp. 548-550.
    33. John P. Peters, ‘Suppression of the "Raines Law Hotels"’ Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, XXXVII, November 1908, 86-96.
    34. David Stauber, ‘Attitude of the Distillers and Wholesale Liquor Dealers on the Regulation of Liquor Traffic’, Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, XXXVII, November 1908, 69-74.
    35. Part 6. Solutions to the problem: disinterested management

    36. Bailie Lewis, ‘Lecture, delivered at a public meeting held in Queen Street Hall, Edinburgh, 14th July 1873 ’, The Gothenburg Licensing System (Edinburgh: William Oliphant & Co, 1873), pp. 4-5, 8-20, 22-29, 34-37.
    37. Report of the Committee of the Municipality of Stockholm on the Proposed Adoption of the Gothenburg Licensing System, translated with a preface by David Carnegie (Edinburgh: R. Grant & Son, 1876, pp. 3-5, 7-15.
    38. Francis John Jayne, ‘Successful Public-House Reform’, North American Review, 158, May 1894, 520-28.
    39. Joseph Rowntree and Arthur Sherwell, ‘Statement of Principles and Conditions of Success’ in British ‘Gothenburg’ Experiments and Public-House Trusts (London: Hodder & Stoughton, 1901), pp. 1-8.
    40. Toronto Mail and Empire, ‘Earl Grey Tells of Liquor Trust’, 3 March 1902.
    41. Benjamin Tillman, ‘Our Whiskey Rebellion’, North American Review, 158, May 1894, 513-19.
    42. Raymond Calkins, ‘A Summary of Investigations Concerning Substitutes for the Saloon’, in John S. Billings, Charles W. Eliot, Henry W. Farnam, Jacob L. Green and Francis G. Peabody, The Liquor Problem: A Summary of Investigations Conducted by the Committee of Fifty 1893-1903, (Boston and New York: Houghton Mifflin and Company, 1905), pp. 145-82.

    Volume 4: Efforts to control, restrict, and prohibit: Drugs

    Part 1. The Chinese opium trade: growing concern

    1. Lord Anthony Ashley-Cooper, ‘Suppression of the Opium Trade’, Debates of the House of Commons, 1843, Vol 68, pp. 362-368, 403-405.
    2. Sir Robert Peel, ‘Response to Lord Ashley’, Debates of the House of Commons, 1843, Vol 68, 461-68.
    3. Part 2. The debates: To trade or not to trade

    4. Arthur Moule, ‘The Responsibility of the Church as Regards the Opium Traffic with China’, (Published for SSOT by London: Dyer Brothers, Amen Corners, ca. 1881), pp. 9-24.
    5. Rutherford Alcock, ‘Opium and Common Sense’, Nineteenth Century, 10, 1881, 854-68.
    6. Frederick Storrs-Turner, ‘Opium and England’s Duty’, Nineteenth Century, LX, February 1882, 242-53.
    7. Alexander J. Arbuthnot, ‘The Opium Controversy’, Nineteenth Century, LXI, March 1882, 403-13.
    8. W. J. Moore, ‘Article IV’ and ‘Article V’, The Other Side of the Opium Question (London: J. and A. Churchill, 1882), pp. 61-95.
    9. Part 3. The campaign literature

    10. Anon, Poppies: A Talk with English Boys and Girls About Opium (London and Aylesbury: Hazell, Watson and Viney printers, n.d.), pp. 3-14.
    11. Our National Sin Against the Government and People of China: How Much Longer are we to Continue Our Wrong-Doing?, (London, Morgan & Scott, ca., 1906).
    12. The Opium Curse: An Appeal from Chinese Christians to the Churches of Great Britain, Society for the Suppression of the Opium trade Anti-opium tracts new series No 5. (London, 1889].
    13. ‘Introduction’, trans. Rev. J. W. Paxton, William H. Park (ed.), in Opinions of over 100 physicians on the Use of Opium in China (Shanghai: American Presbyterian Mission Press, 1899), pp. v-vii.
    14. Part 4. Examining and problematizing the Chinese sojourner

    15. US Congress, Report of the Joint Special Committee to Investigate Chinese Immigration, February 27 1877, pp. 60-61, 126, 130-131, 133-136.
    16. Report of the Royal Commission on Chinese Immigration (Ottawa, 1885), Commissioner Grey’s Report, and evidence from San Francisco and Victoria, BC, pp. lv-lx, 14-15, 54-59, 91-94, 150-151
    17. Willard B. Farwell, ‘Preface’, and ‘The Opium Habit’, in The Chinese at Home and Abroad (San Francisco: A. L. Bancroft, 1885), pp. 3-5, 94-103.
    18. Anon "Chinese in Australia" The Bulletin (21 Aug 1886): 11-15
    19. Allen S. Williams, The Demon of the Orient and His Satellite Fiends of the Joints: Our Opium Smokers as they are in Tartar Hells and American Paradises (New York, 1883), 9-28, 88-91, 138-140.
    20. Frederick J. Masters, ‘The Opium Traffic in California’, Chautauquan, 24, 1896, 54-61.
    21. Tart Quong, Plea for the Abolition of the Importation of Opium (Sydney: John Sands Printer, 1887), pp. 3-8.
    22. Official report of Anti-Opium Demonstration held at the Congregational Church, Pitt St., Sydney, Thursday, April 5th, 1894 (Sydney: T. J. Houghton & Co, 1894), pp. 1-12.
    23. Extracts from Annual Police Reports Relating to Chinese Opium Use and the Opium Traffic in Witswatersrand, the Transvaal, (1907-9).
    24. Part 5. Investigating the domestic drug problem

    25. B. H. Hartwell, ‘Report on the Sale and Use of Opium in Massachusetts’, Twentieth Annual Report of the State Board of Health of Massachusetts (Boston: Wright & Potter Printing Co., 1889), pp. 136-58.
    26. Samuel Hopkins Adams, ‘The Nostrum Evil’ and ‘Aftermath’, in The Great American Fraud, 4th ed. (Chicago: Press of the American Medical Association, 1907), pp. 3-11, 170-76.
    27. British Medical Association, Secret Remedies: What They Cost and What They Contain (London: British Medical Association, 1909), pp. v-vii, 1-2, 9-11, 20-21, 37, 42, 50, 66-67, 76-77, 83-86, 105, 114, 117-119, 124-125, 130, 134, 142, 147-49, 158, 162, 170-171.
    28. The Parliament of the Commonwealth of Australia, Report of the Royal Commission on Secret Drugs, Cures, and Foods Vol (Sydney: Printer of the State of New South Wales, 1907), pp. 1-5, 426-31.

      Part 6. Investigation and legislation

    30. U.S. House of Representatives, ‘Letter from the Secretary of the Treasury Submitting a Draught and Recommending the Passage of a Bill to Prohibit the Importation of Opium in Certain Forms’, House Ex. Document no. 79, 50th Cong., 1st sess. (1888).
    31. Final Report of the Royal Commission on Opium, volume VI, (London: Eyre and Spottiswoode, 1894-95), pp. 15-23.
    32. Wilbur F. Crafts, ‘General Survey of the Problem’, in Crafts and Crafts (eds), Protection of the Native Races Against Intoxicants and Opium (New York, Chicago, Toronto: Fleming H. Revell Co, 1900), pp. 13-29.
    33. ‘Report of the Committee Appointed by the Philippine Commission to Investigate the Use of Opium and the Traffic Therein’, US Senate Doc No 265 (1906), pp. 3-4, 19-21, 52-55.
    34. W. L. Mackenzie King, Report... on The Need for the Suppression of the Opium Traffic in Canada (Ottawa: S. E. Dawson, 1908), pp. 5-13.
    35. Charles B. Towns, ‘The Peril of the Drug Habit and the Need of Restrictive Legislation’, Century Magazine, 84, 1912, 580-587.
    36. ‘The Prevalence of the Morphin and Cocain Habits’, JAMA, 60, 1913, 1363-64.
    37. Part 7. International Action

    38. Report of the International Opium Commission, Shanghai, China, February 1 to February 26 1909, Vol 1. Report of the Proceedings (Shanghai: North China Daily News & Herald, 1909), pp. 9-12, 81-84.
    39. Hamilton Wright, ‘Report on the International Opium Commission and on the Opium Problem as seen within the United States and its Possession’, Senate Document No 377, United States Congressional Series No 5657 (1910), pp. 53-75.
    40. ‘Report of the International Opium Convention’, signed at The Hague, January 23 1912. League of Nations Treaty Series paper No. 122.
    41. Report of the British Delegates to the International Opium Conference held at the Hague, December 1911-January 1912. British Parliament Command Paper No. 11 (1912) (London: Harrison and Sons, 1912), pp. 1-8, 10-27.
    42. Hamilton Wright, Report to the Secretary of State on the Second International Opium Conference by the American Delegates: Hamilton Wright, Lloyd Bryce, Gerrit John Kollen Department of State 31 July 1913.


    Dan Malleck is Associate Professor in the Department of Health Sciences, Brock University, Canada