1st Edition

Dual-Process Theories of the Social Mind

    This volume provides an authoritative synthesis of a dynamic, influential area of psychological research. Leading investigators address all aspects of dual-process theories: their core assumptions, conceptual foundations, and applications to a wide range of social phenomena. In 38 chapters, the volume addresses the pivotal role of automatic and controlled processes in attitudes and evaluation; social perception; thinking and reasoning; self-regulation; and the interplay of affect, cognition, and motivation. Current empirical and methodological developments are described. Critiques of the duality approach are explored and important questions for future research identified.

    I. The Basics
    1. Two of What?: A Conceptual Analysis of Dual-Process Theories, Bertram Gawronski, Jeffrey W. Sherman, and Yaacov Trope
    2. Examining the Mapping Problem in Dual-Process Models, Agnes Moors
    3. Conscious and Unconscious: Toward an Integrative Understanding of Human Mental Life and Action, Roy F. Baumeister and John A. Bargh
    4. What Is Control?: A Conceptual Analysis, Kentaro Fujita, Yaacov Trope, William A. Cunningham, and Nira Liberman
    II. Dual-Systems Models
    5. Two Systems of Reasoning: An Update, Steven Sloman
    6. Rationality, Intelligence, and the Defining Features of Type 1 and Type 2 Processing, Keith A. Stanovich, Richard F. West, and Maggie E. Toplak
    7. The Reflective-Impulsive Model, Fritz Strack and Roland Deutsch
    III. Measurement and Formal Modeling
    8. Dual-Process Theory from a Process Dissociation Perspective, B. Keith Payne and C. Daryl Cameron
    9. Process Models Require Process Measures, Jeffrey W. Sherman, Regina Krieglmeyer, and Jimmy Calanchini
    10. Random-Walk and Diffusion Models, Karl Christoph Klauer
    IV. Attitudes and Evaluation
    11. The MODE Model: Attitude-Behavior Processes as a Function of Motivation and Opportunity, Russell H. Fazio and Michael A. Olson
    12. The Elaboration Likelihood and Metacognitive Models of Attitudes: Implications for Prejudice, the Self, and Beyond, Richard E. Petty and Pablo Briñol
    13. The Associative-Propositional Evaluation Model: Operating Principles and Operating Conditions of Evaluation, Bertram Gawronski and Galen V. Bodenhausen
    14. The Systems of Evaluation Model: A Dual-Systems Approach to Attitudes, Allen R. McConnell and Robert J. Rydell
    V. Social Perception
    15. Controlled Processing and Automatic Processing in the Formation of Spontaneous Trait Inferences, Randy J. McCarthy and John T. Skowronski
    16. The Dynamic Interactive Model of Person Construal: Coordinating Sensory and Social Processes, Jonathan B. Freeman and Nalini Ambady
    17. Person Perception: Integrating Category-Level and Individual-Level Information in Face Construal, Kimberly A. Quinn and C. Neil Macrae
    18. Dual-Process Models of Trait Judgments of Self and Other: An Overview and Critique, Stanley B. Klein
    19. Automaticity, Control, and the Social Brain, Robert P. Spunt and Matthew D. Lieberman
    VI. Thinking and Reasoning
    20. The Human Unconscious: A Functional Perspective, Ran R. Hassin and Asael Y. Sklar
    21. Metacognitive Processes and Subjective Experiences, Rainer Greifeneder and Norbert Schwarz
    22. Same or Different?: How Similarity versus Dissimilarity Focus Shapes Social Information Processing, Thomas Mussweiler
    23. Visual versus Verbal Thinking and Dual-Process Moral Cognition, Elinor Amit, Sara Gottlieb, and Joshua D. Greene
    24. Prolonged Thought: Proposing Type 3 Processing, Ap Dijksterhuis, Madelijn Strick, Maarten W. Bos, and Loran F. Nordgren
    VII. Habits, Goals, and Motivation
    25. Habits in Dual-Process Models, Wendy Wood, Jennifer S. Labrecque, Pei-Ying Lin, and Dennis Rünger
    26. Conscious and Unconscious Goal Pursuit: Similar Functions, Different Processes?, Ruud Custers and Henk Aarts
    27. The Implicit Volition Model: The Unconscious Nature of Goal Pursuit, Gordon B. Moskowitz
    28. Promotion and Prevention: How 0 Can Create Dual Motivational Forces, E. Tory Higgins
    VIII. Self-Regulation and Control
    29. Beyond Control versus Automaticity: Psychological Processes Driving Postsuppressional Rebound, Jens Förster and Nira Liberman
    30. The Explicit and Implicit Ways of Overcoming Temptation, Ayelet Fishbach and Luxi Shen
    31. Breaking the Prejudice Habit: Automaticity and Control in the Context of a Long-Term Goal, Patrick S. Forscher and Patricia G. Devine
    32. Emotion Generation and Emotion Regulation: Moving beyond Traditional Dual-Process Accounts, Gal Sheppes and James J. Gross
    IX. Criticism and Alternatives
    33. The Limits of Automaticity, Klaus Fiedler and Mandy Hütter
    34. The Unimodel Unfolding, Arie W. Kruglanski, Kristen M. Klein, Antonio Pierro, and Lucia Mannetti
    35. Why a Propositional Single-Process Model of Associative Learning Deserves to Be Defended, Jan De Houwer
    36. How Many Processes to Ground a Concept?, Gün R. Semin, Margarida V. Garrido, and Ana Rita Farias
    37. Dual Experiences, Multiple Processes: Looking Beyond Dualities for Mechanisms of the Mind, David M. Amodio
    38. Rethinking Duality: Criticisms and Ways Forward, Melissa J. Ferguson, Thomas C. Mann, and Michael T. Wojnowicz


    Jeffrey W. Sherman, PhD, is Professor of Psychology at the University of California, Davis. His research investigates the cognitive processes underlying social psychology and behavior, with particular interests in attitude formation and change and how stereotypes and prejudice affect social perception. Dr. Sherman is Editor of the journal Social Cognition. A Fellow of the Association for Psychological Science (APS), the Society for Personality and Social Psychology (SPSP), and the Society for Experimental Social Psychology (SESP), he is a recipient of other honors including the Theoretical Innovation Prize from SPSP and the Anneliese Maier Research Award from the Alexander von Humboldt Foundation and the German Federal Ministry of Education.

    Bertram Gawronski, PhD, is Professor of Psychology at the University of Texas at Austin. His research investigates the mental underpinnings and behavioral consequences of spontaneous and deliberate evaluations of objects, individuals, groups, and social issues. Dr. Gawronski's work has been recognized with honors including the Theoretical Innovation Prize from SPSP, the Career Trajectory Award from SESP, the Early Career Award from the International Social Cognition Network, the Early Researcher Award from the Ministry of Research and Innovation of Ontario, and the Charlotte and Karl Bühler Award from the German Psychological Society. He is a fellow of APS, SESP, and SPSP.

    Yaacov Trope, PhD, is Professor of Psychology at New York University. His research investigates the interrelations among cognition, motivation, and self-regulation in the social context. Particular interests include how psychological distance influences the representations of objects, and, thereby, the predictions, evaluations, and choices individuals make regarding those objects; self-control processes; and the role of affective states and personal desires in social judgment and decision making. Dr. Trope is a Fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, APS, SESP, and SPSP.

    Two-mode models are social psychology's best insight; this volume assembles major contemporary contributors.  Researchers at all stages--from students to faculty--will benefit from reading and using this book.--Susan T. Fiske, PhD, Eugene Higgins Professor, Psychology and Public Affairs, Princeton University

    Sherman, Gawronski, and Trope have produced a landmark volume on the yin and yang of social cognition. This book is thorough, thought-provoking, scholarly, and engaging. As the chapters amply demonstrate, the separation of social thought into its component processes has led to numerous important advances in social psychology, and often to fundamental questions about what it means to be human. Dual-Process Theories of the Social Mind will be a great accompaniment to a variety of advanced undergraduate and graduate courses, and likely will be one of the most regularly accessed books on your office shelf.--William von Hippel, PhD, School of Psychology, University of Queensland, Australia

    Sherman, Gawronski and Trope have gathered wide-ranging and thoughtful chapters on a topic that is at the center of psychology--the dual ways in which our minds think, feel, and initiate action. These discussions will inform and challenge your thinking and provide a more sophisticated understanding of the heart of social cognition.--Mahzarin R. Banaji, PhD, Richard Clarke Cabot Professor of Social Ethics, Department of Psychology, Harvard University
    -One may begin to wish for the good old days when automatic was automatic and controlled was…well, not automatic. Yet a path forward does emerge from the book, a sort of 'self-regulation intervention' for researchers who develop or apply dual-process models. Rather than automatically relying on our habitual and occasionally somewhat vaguely defined dichotomies, we should make our assumptions explicit and think through the degree to which our work is addressing operating principles, operating conditions, or both. This is the level of deliberation that the editors required of their contributors, and it is an excellent general standard for psychological science….In spite of the ubiquity of dual-process models and the plethora of studies from this perspective, the future shape of this research seems wide open, and Dual-Process Theories of the Social Mind offers a wide variety of starting points for those who will carry it forward.--PsycCRITIQUES, 3/23/2015ƒƒA very useful update to the state of the art in the field….The editors have done an admirable job of organizing the myriad of models while also including contributions that address the concerns that have arisen with their use. The combination of the large number of models covered along with the focus upon their systematic analysis helps to create a text that truly captures the current zeitgeist of the field, providing both clarity for existing models and suggesting paths forward towards future research. As such, it would be of greatest use as a reference for researchers and graduate students either already employing dual-process explanations field or those interested in using them appropriately and effectively in new research. It would also be of use as a graduate level text for social psychology and judgment and decision making courses, as well as classes in other fields interested in the influence of controlled and automatic processing on social behavior.--Journal of Social Psychology, 1/1/2014