4th Edition

Dudley's Handbook of Practical Gear Design and Manufacture



  • Available for pre-order. Item will ship after August 17, 2021
ISBN 9780367649029
August 17, 2021 Forthcoming by CRC Press
992 Pages 718 B/W Illustrations

USD $200.00

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Book Description

The fourth edition of Dudley’s Handbook of Practical Gear Design is the definitive reference guide to gear design, production, and applications. Using a pragmatic approach, the book provides gear manufacturing methods for high, medium, and low volume production.

Updated throughout to reflect cutting edge research, this edition includes new contributions from experts in the field. Providing a clear overview of the foundations of advanced gear systems, the book contains new material on the potential of technologies such as high-performance plastic gears, alongside the issues that can be encountered. The book also includes innovative chapters discussing topics such as involute gear drives and gear strength calculation, with new regulations such as ISO 6336 in mind. Using modern technologies such as powder metallurgy and additive manufacturing, all the necessary information to reduce gear cost is provided. Additionally, gear micro-geometry modifications and planetary gear designs are discussed.

Including comprehensive tables and references, this is the definitive guide for all those in the field of gear technology, from industry professionals to undergraduate and postgraduate engineering students.

Table of Contents

1. Foundations of Advanced Gear Systems 1.1. The Law of Contact: The First Fundamental Law of Gearing 1.2. The Conjugate Action Law: The Second Fundamental Law of Gearing 1.2.1. Conjugate action law in parallel-axes gearing 1.2.2. Conjugate action law in intersected-axes gearing, and in crossed-axes gearing 1.2.3. Examples of violation of the conjugate action law 1.3. The Law of Equal Base Pitches: The Third Fundamental Law of Gearing Conclusion References Bibliography 2. Gear-Design Trends 2.1. Manufacturing Trends 2.2. Features of Gears of Different Kinds 2.3. Selection of the Right Kind of Gear 2.3.1. External spur gears 2.3.2. External helical gears 2.3.3. Internal gears 2.3.4. Straight bevel gears 2.3.5. Zerol bevel gears 2.3.6. Spiral bevel gears 2.3.7. Hypoid gears 2.3.8. Face gears 2.3.9. Crossed-helical gears (non-enveloping worm gears) 2.3.10. Single-enveloping worm gears 2.3.11. Double-enveloping worm gears 2.3.12. Spiroid gears Bibliography 3. Gear Types and Nomenclature 3.1. Types of Gears 3.1.1. Classifications 3.1.2. Parallel-axes gears 3.1.3. Nonparallel, coplanar gears (intersecting-axes) 3.1.4. Nonparallel, non-coplanar gears (non-intersecting axes) 3.1.5. Nonconjugate gears 3.1.6. Special gear types 3.2 Nomenclature of Gears 3.2.1. Spur gear nomenclature and basic formulas 3.2.2. Helical gear nomenclature and basic formulas 3.2.3. Internal gear nomenclature and formulas 3.2.4. Crossed helical gear nomenclature and formulas 3.2.5. Bevel gear nomenclature and formulas 3.2.6. Worm gear nomenclature and formulas 3.2.7. Face gears 3.2.8. Spiroid gear nomenclature and formulas 3.2.9. Helicon gears 3.3. An Advanced Set of Terms and Definitions for Design Parameters in Gearing References Bibliography 4. Gear Tooth Design 4.1. Basic Requirements of Gear Teeth 4.1.1. Definition of gear tooth elements 4.1.2. Basic considerations for gear tooth design 4.1.3. Long- and short-addendum gear design 4.1.4. Special design considerations 4.2. Standard Systems of Gear Tooth Proportions 4.2.1. Standard systems for spur gears 4.2.2. System for helical gears 4.2.3. System for internal gears 4.2.4. Standard systems for bevel gears 4.2.5. Standard systems for worm gears 4.2.6. Standard system for face gears 4.2.7. System for Spiroid and Helicon gears 4.3. General Equations Relating to Center Distance 4.3.1. Center-distance equations 4.3.2. Standard center-distance 4.3.3. Standard pitch diameters 4.3.4. Operating pitch diameters 4.3.5. Operating pressure angle 4.3.6. Operating center distance 4.3.7. Center distance for gears operating on nonparallel nonintersecting shafts 4.3.8. Center distance for worm gearing 4.3.9. Reasons for nonstandard center distances 4.3.10. Nonstandard center distances 4.4. Elements of Center Distance 4.4.1. Effects of tolerances on center distance 4.4.2. Machine elements that require consideration in critical center-distance applications 4.4.3. Control of backlash 4.4.4. Effects of temperature on center distance 4.4.5. Mounting distance Bibliography 5. Preliminary Design Considerations 5.1. Stress Formulas 5.1.1. Calculated stresses 5.1.2. Gear-design limits 5.1.3. Gear-strength calculations 5.1.4. Gear surface-durability calculations 5.1.5. Gear scoring 5.1.6. Thermal limits 5.2. Stress Formulas 5.2.1. Gear specifications 5.2.2. Size of spur and helical gears by Q-factor method 5.2.3. Indexes of tooth loading 5.2.4. Estimating spur- and helical-gear size by K-factor 5.2.5. Estimating bevel-gear size 5.2.6. Estimating worm-gear size 5.2.7. Estimating Spiroid gear size 5.3. Data Needed for Gear Drawings 5.3.1. Gear dimensional data 5.3.2. Gear-tooth tolerances 5.3.3. Gear material and heat-treatment data 5.3.4. Enclosed-gear-unit requirements Bibliography 6. Design Formulas 6.1. Calculation of Gear-Tooth Data 6.1.1. Number of pinion teeth 6.1.2. Hunting teeth 6.1.3. Spur-gear-tooth proportions 6.1.4. Root fillet radii of curvature 6.1.5. Long-addendum pinions 6.1.6. Tooth thickness 6.1.7. Chordal dimensions 6.1.8. Degrees roll and limit diameter 6.1.9. Form diameter and contact ratio 6.1.10. Spur-gear dimension sheet 6.1.11. Internal-gear dimension sheet 6.1.12. Helical-gear tooth proportions 6.1.13. Helical-gear dimension sheet 6.1.14. Bevel-gear tooth proportions 6.1.15. Straight-bevel-gear dimension sheet 6.1.16. Spiral-bevel-gear dimension sheet 6.1.17. Zerol-bevel-gear dimension sheet 6.1.18. Hypoid-gear calculations 6.1.19. Face-gear calculations 6.1.20. Crossed-helical-gear proportions 6.1.21. Single-enveloping-worm-gear proportions 6.1.22. Single-enveloping worm gears 6.1.23. Double-enveloping worm gears 
6.2. Gear-Rating Practice 6.2.1. General considerations in rating calculations 6.2.2. General formulas for tooth bending strength and tooth surface durability 6.2.3. Geometry factors for strength 6.2.4. Overall derating factor for strength 6.2.5. Geometry factors for durability 6.2.6. Overall derating factor for surface durability 6.2.7. Load rating of worm gearing 6.2.8. Design formulas for scoring 6.2.9. Trade standards for rating gears 6.2.10. Vehicle-gear-rating practice 6.2.11. Marine-gear-rating practice 6.2.12. Oil and gas industry gear rating 6.2.13. Aerospace-gear-rating practice Bibliography 7 Gear Reactions and Mountings 7.1. Mechanics of Gear Reactions 7.1.1. Summation of forces and moments 7.1.2. Application to gearing 7.2. Basic Gear Reactions, Bearing Loads and Mounting Types 7.2.1. The main source of load 7.2.2. Gear reactions to bearing 7.2.3. Directions of loads 7.2.4. Additional considerations 7.2.5. Types of mountings 7.2.6. Efficiencies 7.3. Basic Mounting Arrangements and Recommendations 7.3.1. Bearing and shaft alignment 7.3.2. Bearings 7.3.3. Mounting gears to shaft 7.3.4. Housing 7.3.5. Inspection hole 7.3.6. Break-in 7.4. Bearing Load Calculations for Spur Gears 7.4.1. Spur gears 7.4.2. Helical gears 7.4.3. Gears in trains 7.4.4. Idlers 7.4.5. Intermediate gears 7.4.6. Planetary gears 7.5. Bearing-Load Calculations for Helicals 7.5.1. Single-helical gears 7.5.2. Double-helical gears 7.5.3. Skewed or crossed helical gears 7.6. Mounting Practice for Bevel and Hypoid Gears 7.6.1. Analysis of forces 7.6.2. Rigid mountings 7.6.3. Maximum displacements 7.6.4. Rolling-element bearings 7.6.5. Straddle mounting 7.6.6. Overhung mounting 7.6.7. Gear blank design 7.6.8. Gear and pinion adjustments 7.6.9. Assembly procedure 7.7. Calculation of Bevel and Hypoid Bearing Loads 7.7.1. Hand of spiral 7.7.2. Spiral angle 7.7.3. Tangential load 7.7.4. Axial thrust 7.7.5. Radial load 7.7.6. Required data for bearing load calculations 7.8. Bearing Load Calculations for Worms 7.8.1. Calculation of forces in worm gears 7.8.2. Mounting tolerances 7.8.3. Worm gear blank considerations 7.8.4. Run-in of worm gears 7.9. Bearing Load Calculations for Spiroid Gearing 7.10. Bearing Load Calculations for Other Gear Types 7.11. Design of the Body of the Gear Bibliography 8 Compensation of Shaft Deflections through Gear Micro-Geometry Modifications 8.1 Introduction 8.2 Determination of errors of alignment due to shaft deflections 8.2.1 Transmissions with parallel shafts 8.2.2 Transmissions with intersecting shafts 8.2.3 Transmissions with crossing shafts 8.3 Compensation of errors of alignment during gear generation 8.4 Numerical examples 8.4.1 Spur gear set 8.4.2 Spiral bevel gear set 8.4.3 Face gear set  
8.4.3.1 Alternative methods of compensating shaft deflections References 9. Special Design Problems in Gear Drives 9.1. Special Calculations of Involute Gear Geometry 9.1.1. Main Symbols and Definitions 9.1.2. Tooth Undercutting in External Gears 9.1.3. Tooth Tip Thickness and Tooth Pointing in External Gears 9.1.4. Interference of Profiles in External Gearing 9.1.5. Interference of Profiles in Internal Gearing 9.1.6. Measurement of Tooth Thickness 9.1.7. Profile Modifications 9.2. Examples of Calculations of Involute Gear Pairs Geometry 9.3. Analysis of Motion and Power Transmission in Complex Cylindrical Gear Drives 9.3.1. Definition of Gear Ratio 9.3.2. Basic Cinematic Diagrams and Gear Ratios of Planetary Gear Drives 9.3.3. MN Method of Kinematical Analysis 9.4. Efficiency of Cylindrical Involute Gear Drives and Complex Driving Systems 9.4.1. Efficiency of a Single Gear Pair 9.4.2. Efficiency of Planetary Gear Drives 9.4.3. Efficiency of Planetary and Complex Gear Drives Built Up of Two or More Stages 9.5. Lubrication and Cooling of Gear Drives 9.5.1. Lubrication 9.5.2. Cooling 9.6. Design of Spur and Helical Gears 9.6.1. Pinions 9.6.2. Gears 9.6.3. Arrangement of Gear Supports 9.7. Load Rating Problem References 10 Gear Materials 10.1. Steels for Gears 10.1.1. Mechanical properties 10.1.2. Heat-treating techniques 10.1.3. Heat-treating data 10.1.4. Hardness tests 10.2. Localized Hardening of Gear Teeth 10.2.1. Carburizing 10.2.2. Nitriding 10.2.3. Induction hardening of steel 10.2.4. Flame hardening of steel 10.2.5. Combined heat treatments 10.2.6. Metallurgical quality of steel gears 10.3. Cast Irons for Gears 10.3.1. Gray cast iron 10.3.2. Ductile iron 10.4. Nonferrous Gear Metals 10.4.1. Kinds of bronze 10.4.2. Standard gear bronzes 10.5. Nonmetallic Gears 10.5.1. Thermosetting laminates 10.5.2. Nylon gears Bibliography 11. Load Carrying Capacities, Strength Numbers, and Main Influence Parameters for Different Gear Materials and Heat Treatment Processes 11.1. Introduction 11.2. Fundamentals of gear stresses and the determination of the load carrying capacity 11.3. Overview of typical gear failure modes 11.4. Requirements on the properties of gear steels 11.5. Steels for quenching and tempering 11.6. Steels for surface hardening 11.7. Steels for nitriding 11.7.1. Tooth root bending strength 11.7.2. Micropitting and wear performance 11.8. Steels for case-hardening and carbonitriding 11.8.1. Influence of gear size 11.8.2. Influence of case-hardening depth 11.8.3. Influence of retained austenite 11.8.4. Influence of cryogenic treatment 11.8.5. Influence of residual stress condition 11.8.6. Influence on tooth root load carrying capacity 11.8.7. Change in the fracture mode – unpenned vs. shot-peened condition 11.8.8. Stepwise S-N Curve 11.8.9. Increase of the tooth flank load carrying capacity (Pitting) 11.9. Summary and outlook Acknowledgement References 12  Gear Load Capacity Calculation: based on ISO 6336 12.1. Introduction and History of ISO 6336 12.1.1. Introduction: Parts and Document Types 12.1.2. History 12.1.3. Overview and Structure of ISO 6336 Documents 12.2. Calculation of Surface durability – ISO 6336-2:2019 12.2.1. Description of the Failure Mode Pitting 12.2.2. Basic Calculation Principles 12.2.3. New Aspects and Updates of the Standard 12.2.4. Calculation Example 12.2.5. Summary 12.2.6. Outlook 12.3. Calculation of Tooth Bending Strength – ISO 6336-3:2019 12.3.1. Description of the Failure Mode Tooth Root Breakage 12.3.2. Basic Calculation Principles 12.3.3. New Aspects and Updates of the Standard 12.3.4. Calculation Example 12.3.5. Summary 12.3.6. Outlook 12.4. Calculation of Micropitting Load Capacity– ISO/TS 6336-22:2018 12.4.1. Description of the Failure Mode Micropitting 12.4.2. Basic Calculation Principles 
12.4.3. Micropitting test procedures 12.4.4. Calculation Example 12.4.5. Summary 12.4.6. Outlook 12.5. Calculation of Tooth Flank Fracture Load Capacity – ISO/TS 6336-4:2019 12.5.1. Description of the Failure ModeTooth Flank Fracture 12.5.2. Basic Calculation Principles 12.5.3. Influences on Tooth Flank Fracture 12.5.4. Calculation Example 12.5.5. Summary 12.5.6. Outlook References 13.  Potential and Challenges of High-Performance Plastic Gears Introduction 13.1. State of the art & application of plastic gears 13.1.1. Materials and properties 13.1.2. Manufacturing 13.1.3. Design 13.1.4. Fields of application 13.2. Design & calculation methods for plastic gear applications 13.2.1. Tooth temperature 13.2.2. Tooth load carrying capacity acc. to VDI 2736 13.3. Recent research results 13.3.1. Thermal behavior 13.3.2. Low loss plastic gears 13.3.3. Tooth root load carrying capacity 13.3.4. Flank load carrying capacity 13.3.5. Tribology 13.4. Challenges for the future application of plastic gears Conclusion Nomenclature References 14. The Kinds and Causes of Gear Failures 14.1. Analysis of Gear-System Problems 14.1.1. Determining the problem 14.1.2. Possible causes of gear-system failures 14.1.3 Incompatibility in gear systems 14.1.4 Investigation of gear systems 14.2. Analysis of Tooth Failures and Gear-Bearing Failures 14.2.1. Nomenclature of gear failure 14.2.2. Tooth breakage 14.2.3. Pitting of gear teeth 14.2.4. Scoring failures 14.2.5. Wear failures 14.2.6. Gearbox bearings 14.2.7. Rolling-element bearings 14.2.8. Sliding-element bearings 14.3. Some Causes of Gear Failure other than Excess Transmission Load 14.3.1. Overload gear failures 14.3.2. Gear-casing problems 14.3.3. Lubrication failures 14.3.4. Thermal problems in fast-running gears 15.  Load Rating of Gears 15.1. Main Nomenclature 15.2. Coplanar Gears (Involute Parallel Gears and Bevel Gears) 15.3. Coplanar Gears: Simplified Estimates and Design Criteria 15.4. Coplanar Gears: Detailed Analysis, Conventional Fatigue Limits, and Service Factors 15.5. RH – Conventional Fatigue Limit of Factor K 15.5.1. RH – preliminary geometric calculations 15.5.2. Adaption for Bevel Gears 15.5.3. RH – unified geometry factor GH 15.5.4. RH – comments and comparisons on the unified geometry factor GH 15.5.5. RH – elastic coefficient Dp and conventional fatigue limit   of the Hertzian pressure 15.5.6. RH – adaptation factor, AH 15.5.7. RH – Hertzian pressure 15.5.8. RH – service factor, CSF (only for one loading level) 15.5.9. Power capacity tables 15.6. RF – Conventional Fatigue Limit of Factor UL 15.6.1. RF – Geometry Factor, Jn 15.6.2. RF – adaptation factor, AF 15.6.3. RF – size factor, Ks 15.6.4. RF – conventional fatigue limit of the fillet stress, 15.6.5. RF – tooth root stress at fillet, 15.6.6. RF – service factor, KSF (only for 1 loading level) 15.7. Coplanar Gears: Detailed Life Curves and Yielding 15.7.1. Definition of the life curves and gear life ratings for one loading level 15.7.2. Yielding 15.7.3. Tooth damage and cumulative gear life 15.7.4. Reliability 15.8. Coplanar Gears: Prevention of Tooth Wear and Scoring 15.8.1. Progressive tooth wear 15.8.2. Scoring and scuffing 15.9. Crossed Helical Gears 15.10. Hypoid Gears 15.11. Worm Gearing 16. Gear-Manufacturing Methods 16.1. Gear-Tooth Cutting 16.1.1. Gear hobbing 16.1.2. Shaping – pinion cutter 16.1.3. Shaping – rack cutter 16.1.4. Cutting bevel gears 16.1.5. Gear milling 16.1.6. Broaching gears 16.1.7. Punching gears 16.1.8. G-TRAC generating 16.2. Gear Grinding 16.2.1. Form grinding 16.2.2. Generating grinding – disk wheel 16.2.3. Generating grinding – bevel gears 16.2.4. Generating grinding – threaded wheel 16.2.5. Thread grinding 16.3. Gear Shaving, Rolling, and Honing 16.3.1. Rotary shaving 16.3.2. Rack shaving 16.3.3. Gear rolling 16.3.4. Gear honing 16.4. Gear Measurement 16.4.1. Gear accuracy limits 16.4.2. Machines to measure gears 16.5. Gear Casting and Forming 16.5.1. Cast and molded gears 16.5.2. Sintered gears 16.5.3. Cold-drawn gears and rolled worm threads References 17. Design of Tools to Make Gear Teeth 17.1. Shaper Cutters 17.2. Gear Hobs 17.3. Spur-Gear Milling Cutters 17.4. Worm Milling Cutters and Grinding Wheels 17.5. Gear-Shaving Cutters 17.6 Punching Tools 17.7 Sintering Tools References 18  Dynamic Model of Technological System for Gear Finishing 18.1. Introduction 18.2. Development of a generalized dynamic model 18.3. Determining the model parameters 18.4. Objective functions of the dynamic model 18.5. Synthesis of tools and parameters of the technological systems References 19. Powder Metal Gears 19.1 Introduction 19.2 PM Materials for gears 19.2.1 As Sintered (S) 19.2.2 Sinter hardened (SH) 19.2.3 Quench and Temper (QT) 19.2.4 Induction Hardening (IH) 19.2.5 Case Carburizing and Tempering (CQT) 19.3 Manufacturing 19.3.1 Compaction 19.3.2 Sintering 19.3.3 Post processing 19.4 Tolerances 19.5 Productivity 19.6 Powder metal gear macro design 19.7 Powder metal micro design 19.7.1 Root optimization 19.8 Stress calculations of PM gears 19.9 PM specific standards 19.9.1 MPIF 35 19.9.2 AGMA 6008 19.9.3 AGMA 944 19.9.4 AGMA 942 19.9.4 AGMA 942 References 20. 3D Printed Gears 20.1 Introduction 20.2 Plastic Gears 20.2.1 Fused Filament Deposition (FFD) 20.2.2 Stereo Lithography (SL) 20.2.3 Selective Laser Sintering (SLS) 20.3 Steel Gears 20.3.1 Fused Filament Deposition (FFD) 20.3.2 Laser and Electron Beam Methods. (LPBF, EB-PBF) 20.3.3 Binder Jet (BJ) 20.4 Steels for Powder Bed Printing 20.5 Post Processing of AM steel gears 20.6 Final remarks References 21.  Gear Noise & Vibration (NVH) 21.1 Fundamentals of Gear noise 21.1.1 Transfer path of vibration 21.1.2 Gear noise excitation 21.1.3 Eigenfrequency and Resonance 21.2 Calculation methods to evaluate gear noise excitation 21.2.1 Differential equation for vibration phenomena 21.2.2 Transmission Error by quasi-static approach 21.2.3 Tooth force excitation by quasi-static approach 21.2.5 Evaluation by characteristic values 21.3 Measurement of Vibration 21.3.1 Sensors and measurement results 21.3.2 Positioning of sensors and operating range 21.3.3 Sources of possible errors 21.4. Condition monitoring References 22 Planetary Gears Trains 22.1 Introduction 22.2 Types of Simple Planetary Gear Trains 22.3 Specific Conditions of Planetary Gear Trains 22.4 Meshing Geometry of Planetary Gear Trains 22.5 Torque Method for Kinematic and Power Analysis of Planetary Gear Trains 22.6 Type of Powers, Losses, and Basic Efficiency of Planetary Gear Trains 22.7 Efficiency of Planetary Gear Trains 22.8 Load Capacity of Gears of Planetary Gear Train 22.9 Load Distribution between the Planets, Its Unevenness, and Equalization 22.10 Types of Compound Planetary Gear Trains 22.11 Two-Carrier Compound Planetary Gear Trains 22.12 Three-Carrier Compound Planetary Gear Trains 22.13 Four-Carrier Compound Planetary Gear Trains 22.14 Wolfrom Planetary Gear Train 22.15 Ravigneaux Planetary Gear Train 22.16 Warning – Planetary Gear Trains References Bibliography Appendices Appendix A Appendix B Index

 

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Editor(s)

Biography

Dr. Stephen P. Radzevich is a professor of mechanical engineering and manufacturing engineering, and has extensive industrial experience. He has spent over 35 years developing software, hardware, and other processes for gear design and optimization. He has authored numerous books and scientific papers on gear technologies, and holds patents for inventions in the field.