Durability Design of Concrete Structures in Severe Environments  book cover
2nd Edition

Durability Design of Concrete Structures in Severe Environments

ISBN 9781138073906
Published March 29, 2017 by CRC Press
270 Pages 159 B/W Illustrations

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Book Description

One of the most pressing problems facing the construction industry globally is the deterioration of major concrete infrastructure in marine and other chloride-containing environments. While recent advancements in concrete technology have made it easier to control the negative impact of deteriorating processes such as alkali-aggregate reaction, freezing and thawing and chemical attack, chloride-induced corrosion of embedded steel continues to pose the biggest threat to structure durability and performance.

The second edition of Durability Design of Concrete Structures in Severe Environments focuses on enhancing the durability and service life of concrete structures. The text describes field experience and deteriorating processes of concrete structures in severe environments, and includes current data based on extensive field investigations. It presents a durability design based on calculation of corrosion probability, and outlines additional protective strategies and measures. The text also describes procedures for performance-based concrete quality control and quality assurance with documentation of achieved construction quality and compliance with specified durability. The text further covers calculation of life cycle costs and life cycle assessment, and includes some new recommended job specifications.

What’s New in the Second Edition:

This second edition delivers more results and experience from practical applications of the probability-based durability design and the performance-based concrete quality control. It includes recent commercial projects both for Oslo Harbor KF and Nye Tjuvholmen KS in Oslo, and contains some preliminary results from the more comprehensive research program "Underwater Infrastructure and Underwater City of the Future" at Nanyang Technological University in Singapore.

The book serves as an essential guide both for the owners and the consulting and construction engineers involved in new and major concrete infrastructure design and construction.

Table of Contents

Historical review

Field experience


Harbor structures


Offshore structures

Other structures


Corrosion of embedded steel


Chloride ingress

Passivity of embedded steel

Corrosion rate


Galvanic coupling between freely exposed and embedded steel

Structural design

Durability analysis


Calculation of chloride ingress

Calculation of probability

Calculation of corrosion probability

Input parameters

Case studies

Additional strategies and protective measures


Stainless steel reinforcement

Other protective measures

Concrete quality control and quality assurance


Chloride diffusivity

Electrical resistivity

Concrete cover

Electrical continuity

Achieved construction quality


Compliance with specified durability

In situ quality

Potential quality

Condition assessment, preventive maintenance and repairs


Control of chloride ingress

Probability of corrosion

Protective measures


Case study

Practical applications


"Container Terminal 1", Oslo (2002)

"Container Terminal 2", Oslo (2007)

"New City Development", Oslo (2010)

Evaluation and discussion of obtained results

Concluding remarks

Life cycle costs


Case study

Life cycle assessment


Framework for life cycle assessment

Case study

Codes and practice


Codes and practice

New recommended job specifications



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Odd E. Gjørv is professor emeritus, and former head of the Department of Building Materials at the Norwegian University of Science and Technology. He is former general secretary of The Norwegian Academy of Technical Sciences, Fellow of the American Concrete Institute, and past winner of several international awards.


"… gives a very useful and comprehensive overview on factors influencing the durability of concrete structures in severe marine environmental exposure. The information presented is both of academic interest and practical relevance. Based on fundamental background information on deterioration mechanisms, rebar corrosion and concrete durability design and specifications, practical case studies are discussed. The case studies point towards the relevance of performance based specifications for concrete durability, which certainly has high relevance for the future of the international concrete industry."
—Associate Professor Hans Beushausen, University of Cape town

"Prof. Gjørv has provided the design community with an up-to-date overview of relevant durability issues. He made the step from theory to the engineering practice which makes this book relevant for the practice. He has put this approach for evaluation of the service life of concrete structures to the test by applying it to real concrete marine structures. In this way he demonstrates the accessibility and applicability of this approach."
—K. van Breugel, Delft University of Technology