Dynamic RAM: Technology Advancements, 1st Edition (Paperback) book cover

Dynamic RAM

Technology Advancements, 1st Edition

By Muzaffer A. Siddiqi

CRC Press

382 pages | 197 B/W Illus.

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Because of their widespread use in mainframes, PCs, and mobile audio and video devices, DRAMs are being manufactured in ever increasing volume, both in stand-alone and in embedded form as part of a system on chip. Due to the optimum design of their components—access transistor, storage capacitor, and peripherals—DRAMs are the cheapest and densest semiconductor memory currently available. As a result, most of DRAM structure research and development focuses on the technology used for its constituent components and their interconnections. However, only a few books are available on semiconductor memories in general and fewer on DRAMs.

Dynamic RAM: Technology Advancements provides a holistic view of the DRAM technology with a systematic description of the advancements in the field since the 1970s, and an analysis of future challenges.

Topics Include:

  • DRAM cells of all types, including planar, three-dimensional (3-D) trench or stacked, COB or CUB, vertical, and mechanically robust cells using advanced transistors and storage capacitors
  • Advancements in transistor technology for the RCAT, SCAT, FinFET, BT FinFET, Saddle and advanced recess type, and storage capacitor realizations
  • How sub 100 nm trench DRAM technologies and sub 50 nm stacked DRAM technologies and related topics may lead to new research
  • Various types of leakages and power consumption reduction methods in active and sleep mode
  • Various types of SAs and yield enhancement techniques employing ECC and redundancy

A worthwhile addition to semiconductor memory research, academicians and researchers interested in the design and optimization of high-density and cost-efficient DRAMs may also find it useful as part of a graduate-level course.


"The book represents an ultimate guide to DRAM technology for students as well as lecturers or experts in the field … . It offers detailed descriptions of technology advancements together with motivations, focusing on cell topology, critical technological issues such as advanced lithography and patterning, new materials introduction and the evolved physics affecting cell parameters, as well as memory peripheral circuits in the system level … . As a researcher working in the field related to new materials for DRAM cell capacitors, this book offers me a clear and complete view of DRAM technology and its advances, providing not only specifications, requirements, and restrictions but also a necessary deeper understanding of related physics and functionality issues."

—Dr. Milan Tapajna, Institute of Electrical Engineering, Slovak Academy of Sciences

"The main strength of this material is a good overview of all nearly relevant literature on DRAM cell development of the recent years."

—Till Schloesser, Infineon Technologies, Germany

"Quite a comprehensive treatment of regular DRAM technology but it ignores the new demands of wide I/O DRAM and the effects of packaging – e.g. through-silicon vias reducing signal losses and thus lowering power. … definitely a good historical survey and the lists of reference should be very useful to anyone researching the topic."

—Dick James, Chipworks Inc., Ottawa, Ontario, Canada

Table of Contents

Random Access Memories

Static Random Access Memory

Dynamic Random Access Memories: Basics

One-Transistor DRAM Cell

Initial-Stage DRAM Technology Developments

DRAM Operating Modes

Silicon-on-Insulator Technology Based DRAMs

Advanced Nonvolatile Memories

DRAM Cell Development

Planar DRAM Cell

Three-Dimensional Capacitor DRAM Cell

Access Transistor Stacked above the Trench Capacitor Cell

Trench Transistor Cell

Buried Storage Electrode Cell

Buried Capacitor or Stacked Transistor Cell

Stacked Capacitor Cells

DRAM Technologies

DRAM Technology—Early Stage Development

Two-Dimensional DRAM Cell

16 Mbit–256 Mbit, 1 Gbit DRAM Development

Capacitor over Bit Line (COB) DRAM Cell

Advanced DRAM Cell Transistors

Recess-Channel- Array Transistor

Vertical Depleted Lean-Channel Transistor Structure

FinFET—A Self-Aligned DG-MOSFET

Body Tied MOSFETs/Bulk FinFETs

Multichannel FET


Saddle-Fin FET

Surrounding Gate Transistor

Three-Dimensional Memory Architecture: Cell Area Less Than 4 F2


Vertical Transistors

Advanced Recessed FinFETs

Storage Capacitor Enhancement Techniques

Hemispherical Grain Storage Node

Higher Permittivity and Layered Dielectrics

Low-Temperature HSG

Sub–100 nm Trench Capacitor Drams

Metal Insulator Metal Capacitor Structure

Advanced DRAM Technologies

Advanced Cell Structures

Robust Memory Cell—Mechanical Stability of Storage Node

DRAM Cell Transistor Technology

Cell Capacitor Technology

Lithography Technology

Isolation Techniques

Bit Line, Word Line, and Gate Technology

Cell Connections

Interconnection/Metallization Technology

Advanced DRAM Technology Developments

Embedded DRAMs

Leakages in DRAMs

Leakage Currents in DRAMs

Power Dissipation in DRAMs

Cell Signal Charge

Power Dissipation for Data Retention

Low-Power Schemes in DRAM

On-Chip Voltage Converter Circuits

Refresh Time Extension

Subthreshold Current Reduction

Multithreshold-Voltage CMOS Schemes

VGS Reverse Biasing

Leakage Current Reduction Techniques in DRAMs

Analysis of Subthreshold Leakage Reduction

Subthreshold Leakage Reduction for Low-Voltage Applications

Data Retention Time and its Improvement

Memory Peripheral Circuits

Address Decoder Basics

Address Decoding Developments

DRAM Sense Amplifiers

Error Checking and Correction

On Chip Redundancy Techniques and ECC

Redundancy Schemes for High-Density DRAMs

Subject Categories

BISAC Subject Codes/Headings:
COMPUTERS / Computer Engineering
TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING / Electronics / Circuits / General
TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING / Electronics / Microelectronics