This volume traces the process by which reinforced concrete emerged during the 19th century as the successful building material of today. Early work on testing the strength of cements led into a period of experimental work by a number of engineers, notably in Britain, France and America, to devise successful systems of embedding iron in concrete in such a way that the two materials would act together to carry imposed loads. The papers take the story to the early years of the 20th century and provide a thorough review of the gradual evolution of ideas and the contributions of individuals to this technology.
’…strongly recommended for both public and academic libraries….’ E-STREAMS ’The aim of Ashgate's twelve volume series is to bring together collections of important papers on particular topics from scholarly journals, conference proceedings and other hard-to-access sources. This is a wholly laudable objective. Some of the papers in the volume under review [The Civil Engineering of Canals and Railways before 1850] cannot be found even in abundantly-resourced academic libraries. The series opens up, directly or indirectly, debates over the nature of historical evidence which arise from the profoundly different approaches to the past of historians of technology, whose works are principally represented in these volumes, industrial archaeologists and social and economic historians.’ Industrial Archaeology Review 'Engineers will appreciate the stories collected here of the experiments, tests, and early uses of this now ubiquitous building material.' SciTech book News '… likely to remain a reference work for many years to come. The lengthy bibliographies attached to most of the papers included will be particularly valuable to readers who wish to delve more deeply into the subject.' Architectural Science Review Vol. 45 '… a remarkably complete history… This book belongs on the shelf of any practitioner interested in the technical history of reinforced concrete.' APT Bulletin 'The 12-volume series Studies in the History of Civil Engineering, of which Early Reinforced Concrete is the eleventh, are invaluable works on this subject and highly recommended reading for both students and practising engineers.' Concrete 'I can assure the reader that this book will be of enormous value.' Context
Contents: Introduction; Sir Robert Smirke: a pioneer of concrete construction, J. Mordaunt Crook; Concrete and the structural use of cements in England before 1890, B. L. Hurst; W. B. Wilkinson (1819-1902) and his place in the history of reinforced concrete, Joyce M. Brown; Portland cements, 1843-1887, A. W. Skempton; The emergence of reinforced concrete, 1750-1910, John W. de Courcy; The origins of reinforced concrete, Cyrille Simonnet; Hennebique and building in reinforced concrete around 1900, GwenaÃ«l Delhumeau; Agents of change: Hennebique, Mouchel and ferro-concrete in Britain, 1897-1908, Patricia Cusack; The remarkable structures of Paul Cottancin, G. J. Edgell; The era of the proprietary reinforcing systems, M. N. Bussell; Architects and the reinforced concrete specialist in Britain, 1905-1908, Patricia Cusack; Genesis of reinforced concrete construction, W. K. Hatt; The Ward House: a pioneer structure of reinforced concrete, Ellen W. Kramer and Aly A. Raafat; The first reinforced-concrete skyscraper: the Ingalls Building in Cincinnati and its place in structural history, Carl W. Condit; The consulting engineer and early concrete bridges in California, John Snyder and Steve Mikesell; Early reinforced concrete structures in New South Wales (1895-1915) D. J. Fraser; Index.
From dams to cathedrals, from water supply to transport systems, and from land drainage to the design and construction of ever larger and more monumental buildings, the impact of civil engineering on human history has been immense. This series sets out to examine key aspects of its history, from antiquity to the early 20th century.
Studies in the History of Civil Engineering focuses on the following areas: the analysis of early structures to discover how ancient or medieval builders used the materials available to them, and the principles upon which they worked; the ideas and practices of design as employed by both engineers and architects; the development of new materials and techniques, from wooden trusses to cast iron and concrete; the investigation of the great engineering projects that began to burgeon with the 18th century, first in Britain, then elsewhere, underpinned by advances in science which provided a new theoretical framework upon which to base the engineering.
These volumes reveal the implications for the history of architecture of choices of material, technique and structure. They aim also to reflect the political and economic constraints which so often shaped what could be achieved, and the inter-relationship between the history of civil engineering and economic history: the engineering was both stimulated by, and made possible the spread of industrialization.
Not least, the series is concerned to examine the lives, attitudes and careers of the men who emerged to form the new profession of the engineer. Studies in the History of Civil Engineering comprises 12 volumes. Each focuses on a particular topic, edited by an expert in that field. They reprint a selection of papers which have proved of particular importance, and which exemplify the current state of knowledge and the historiography. Originally published in wide range of scholarly journals, conference proceedings and the like, many hard to consult, these papers are now reprinted together under hard covers, making them readily accessible, even for non-specialists. Each volume opens with a substantial new introduction by the editor, to assess the field and place the papers in their context, and is fully indexed. The series constitutes an authoritative reference library, not just for those interested in the history of civil engineering, but also those studying economic history and the history of science and, above all, of architecture.