1st Edition

Ecological Economics

Edited By Clive Spash
    2080 Pages
    by Routledge

    Edited by a leading scholar in the field, this new four-volume Routledge Major Work brings together canonical and cutting-edge research in ecological economics. In tracing both the development of thought in the field, as well as exploring the most recent scholarship, diverse elements of the rapidly expanding literature are brought together for the first time, providing an overview of—and vision for—ecological economics.

    While the roots of ecological economics can be traced back to the late 1800s the modern movement developed from diverse writings in the following century. The field became fully established and institutionalized in the late 1980s. This collection shows how research questioning the basis of mainstream economics combined with a concern for environmental degradation and limits to growth to produce ecological economics. There are also many academics who, while not calling themselves ecological economists, have ideas which are directly of relevance. The common interest, as shown especially in Parts 1–3 of the collection, has been to move beyond standard economic approaches and towards a new political economy which takes note of learning in other sciences.

    Besides identifying and collecting seminal works, the editor has also chosen pieces for their ability cogently to summarize and explain developments and ongoing thinking. Ecological economics is now a vibrant and dynamic field, but it has to date lacked a coherent guide to its rapidly expanding literature. Aided by the collection’s thematic organization and the editor’s newly written general and volume introductions, this Routledge Major Work will enable users to make sense of the wide range of approaches, theories, and concepts that have informed research in ecological economics to date. It is an essential collection destined to be valued as a vital research resource by all scholars and students of the subject.

    Volume I. Foundations

    Part 1. The Development of Ecological Economics

    1. J. Martinez-Alier, ‘Ecological Economics: Taking Nature into Account’, The Environmentalism of the Poor: A Study of Ecological Conflicts and Valuation (Edward Elgar, 2002), pp. 16–38.

    2. C. L. Spash, ‘The Development of Environmental Thinking in Economics’, Environmental Values, 1999, 8, 4, 413–35.

    Part 2. Beyond Standard Economic Theory

    3. K. W. Kapp, ‘Toward a New Science of Political Economy’, The Social Costs of Business Enterprise, 3rd edn. (Spokesman, 1978), pp. 281–301.

    4. N. Georgescu-Roegen, ‘Methods in Economic Science’, Journal of Economic Issues, 1979, XIII, 2, 317–28.

    5. R. B. Norgaard, ‘Economics as Mechanics and the Demise of Biological Diversity’, Ecological Modelling, 1987, 38, 107–21.

    6. M. Max-Neef, ‘Development and Human Needs’, in P. Ekins and M. Max-Neef (eds.), Real-Life Economics: Understanding Wealth Creation (Routledge, 1992), pp. 197–213.

    7. H. Gintis, ‘Beyond Homo Economicus: Evidence from Experimental Economics’, Ecological Economics, 2000, 35, 311–22.

    8. K. A. Brekke and R. B. Howarth, ‘The Social Contingency of Wants’, Land Economics, 2000, 76, 493–503.

    9. F. Hirsch, ‘The Moral Re-entry’, Social Limits to Growth (Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1977), pp. 139–53.

    10. J. Gowdy and J. D. Erickson, ‘The Approach of Ecological Economics’, Cambridge Journal of Economics, 2005, 29, 2, 207–22.

    Part 3. Connecting Economics with Biology and Ecology

    11. N. J. Foss, ‘The Suppression of Evolutionary Approaches in Economics: The Case of Marshall and Monopolistic Competition’, Methodus, 1991, 3, 2, 65–72.

    12. H. E. Daly, ‘On Economics as a Life Science’, Journal of Political Economy, 1968, 76, 392–406.

    13. J. M. Gowdy, ‘Bio-economics: Social Economy Versus the Chicago School’, International Journal of Social Economics, 1987, 14, 1, 32–42.

    14. J. Mokyr, ‘Evolutionary Biology, Technological Change and Economic History’, Bulletin of Economic Research, 1991, 43, 2, 127–49.

    15. G. M. Hodgson, ‘Why the Problem of Reductionism in Biology has Implications for Economics’, World Futures, 1993, 37, 69–90.

    Part 4. Thermodynamics, Entropy, and Economics

    16. A. V. Kneese, R. U. Ayres, and R. C. d’Arge, ‘Persepctive’, Economics and the Environment: A Materials Balance Approach (Johns Hopkins University Press, 1970), pp. 1–13.

    17. N. Georgescu-Roegen, ‘Energy and Economic Myths’, Southern Economic Journal, 1975, 41, 3, 347–81.

    18. N. Wade, ‘Nicholas Georgescu-Roegen: Entropy the Measure of Economic Man’, Science, 1975, 190, 4213, 447–50.

    19. N. Georgescu-Roegen, ‘The Steady State and Ecological Salvation: A Thermodynamic Analysis’, BioScience, 1977, 27, 4, 266–70.

    20. H. E. Daly, ‘Steady State and Thermodynamics’, BioScience, 1977, 27, 12, 770–1.

    21. N. Georgescu-Roegen, ‘Steady State and Thermodynamics: Author’s Reply’, BioScience, 1977, 27, 12, 771.

    22. R. U. Ayres, ‘Eco-thermodynamics: Economics and the Second Law’, Ecological Economics, 26, 1998, 2, 189–209.

    23. R. U. Ayres and B. Warr, ‘Accounting for Growth: The Role of Physical Work’, Structural Change and Economic Dynamics, 2005, 16, 181–209.

    Volume II. Sustaining Well-Being

    Part 5. Economic Growth, Sustainability, and the Environment

    24. P. R. Ehrlich and J. P. Holdren, ‘Impact of Population Growth’, Science, 1971, 171, 1212–17.

    25. H. E. Daly, ‘The Steady-State Economy: Alternative to Growthmania’, Steady-State Economics (Earthscan, 1992), pp. 180–94.

    26. M. S. Common, ‘Poverty and Progress Revisited’, in D. Collard, D. W. Pearce, and D. Ulph (eds.), Economics Growth and Sustainable Environments (Palgrave Macmillan, 1988), pp. 15–39.

    27. R. B. Norgaard, ‘Coevolutionary Development Potential’, Land Economics, 1984, 60, 2, 160–73.

    28. F. Krausmann, H. Schandl, and R. P. Sieferle, ‘Socio-ecological Regime Transitions in Austria and the United Kingdom’, Ecological Economics, 2008, 65, 187–201.

    29. S. M. deBruyn and J. B. Opschoor, ‘Developments in the Throughput-Income Relationship: Theoretical and Empirical Observations’, Ecological Economics, 1997, 20, 255–68.

    30. M. Max-Neef, ‘Economic Growth and Quality of Life: A Threshold Hypothesis’, Ecological Economics, 1995, 15, 115–18.

    31. R. Ziegler, ‘Political Perception and Ensemble of Macro Objectives and Measures: The Paradox of the Index for Sustainable Economic Welfare’, Environmental Values, 2007, 16, 1, 43–60.

    32. H. E. Daly and J. B. Cobb Jr., ‘ISEW: The "Debunking" Interpretation and the Person-in-Community Paradox: Comment on Rafael Ziegler’, Environmental Values, 2007, 16, 3, 287–8.

    33. R. A. Easterlin, ‘Will Raising the Incomes for all Increase the Happiness for All?’, Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, 1995, 27, 1, 35–47.

    34. R. A. Easterlin, ‘Explaining Happiness’, Proceedings of the National Academy of the Sciences, 2003, 100, 19, 11176–83.

    35. L. W. Milbrath, ‘Redefining the Good Life in a Sustainable Society’, Environmental Values, 1993, 2, 3, 261–9.

    36. J. F. O’Neill, ‘Citizenship, Well-being and Sustainability: Epicurus or Aristotle?’, Analyse & Kritik, 2006, 28, 2, 158–72.

    37. Alan Holland, ‘Substitutability: Or, Why Strong Sustainability is Weak and Absurdly Strong Sustainability is Not Absurd’, in J. Foster (ed.), Valuing Nature? Economics, Ethics and the Environment (Routledge, 1997), pp. 119–34.

    38. C. Sneddon, R. B. Howarth, and R. B. Norgaard, ‘Sustainable Development in a Post-Bruntland World’, Ecological Economics, 2006, 57, 253–68.

    Part 6. The Consumer Society

    39. C. S. Devas, ‘The Moral Aspect of Consumption’, International Journal of Ethics, 1899, 10, 1, 41–54.

    40. K. W. Kapp, ‘The Social Costs of Cutthroat Competition, Planned Obsolescence and Sales Promotion’, The Social Costs of Private Enterprise (Shocken, 1978), pp. 224–47.

    41. E. J. Mishan, ‘The Myth of Consumers’ Sovereignty’, Growth: The Price We Pay (Staples Press, 1969), pp. 89–96.

    42. J. K. Galbraith, , ‘The Revised Sequence’ [1967], The New Industrial State, 4th edn. (Princeton University Press, 2007), pp. 263–72.

    43. F. Hirsch, ‘The Ambiguity of Economic Output’, Social Limits to Growth (Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1977), pp. 55–67.

    44. I. Røpke, ‘The Dynamics of Willingness to Consume’, Ecological Economics, 1999, 28, 399–420.

    Part 7. Concern for Future Generations

    45. G. Kavka, ‘The Futurity Problem’, in R. I. Sikora and B. Barry (eds.), Obligations to Future Generations (Temple University Press, 1978), pp. 186–203.

    46. R. B. Howarth, ‘Sustainability as Opportunity’, Land Economics, 1997, 73, 4, 569–79.

    47. C. L. Spash, ‘Economics, Ethics and Future Generations’, Greenhouse Economics: Value and Ethics (Routledge, 2002), pp. 221–50.

    48. B. G. Norton, ‘Intergenerational Equity and Sustainability’, Searching for Sustainability: Interdisciplinary Essays in the Philosophy of Conservation (Cambridge University Press, 2003), pp. 420–55.

    49. E. Agius, ‘Obligations of Justice Towards Future Generations: A Revolution in Social and Legal Thought’, in E. Agius et al., Future Generations & International Law (Earthscan, 1998), pp. 3–12.

    Volume III. Environmental Values

    Part 8. The Environmental Valuation Problem

    50. K. W. Kapp, ‘The Nature and Significance of Social Costs’, The Social Costs of Business Enterprise, 3rd edn. (Spokesman, 1978), pp. 13–27.

    51. M. Sagoff, ‘Some Problems with Environmental Economics’, Environmental Ethics, 1988, 10, 55–74.

    52. J. L. Knetsch, ‘Environmental Valuation: Some Problems of Wrong Questions and Misleading Answers’, Environmental Values, 1994, 3, 4, 351–68.

    53. J. M. Gowdy and P. R. Olsen, ‘Further Problems with Neoclassical Environmental Economics’, Environmental Ethics, 1994, 16, 161–71.

    54. C. L. Spash, ‘Ecosystems, Contingent Valuation and Ethics: The Case of Wetlands Re-creation’, Ecological Economics, 2000, 34, 2, 195–215.

    55. J. Aldred, ‘Incommensurability and Monetary Valuation’, Land Economics, 2006, 82, 2, 141–61.

    56. A. Vatn and D. Bromley, ‘Choices without Prices Without Apologies’, Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, 1994, 26, 129–48.

    57. A. Holland, ‘Are Choices Tradeoffs?’, in D. W. Bromley and J. Paavola (eds.), Economics, Ethics and Environmental Policy: Contested Choices (Blackwell, 2002), pp. 17–34.

    Part 9. Lessons in Valuation for Ecological Economics

    58. J. O’Neill and C. L. Spash, ‘Conceptions of Value in Environmental Decision-Making’, Environmental Values, 2000, 9, 4, 521–36.

    59. S. O. Funtowicz and J. R. Ravetz, ‘The Worth of a Songbird: Ecological Economics as a Post-Normal Science’, Ecological Economics, 1994, 10, 197–207.

    60. J. Martinez-Alier, G. Munda, and J. O’Neill (1998) ‘Weak Comparability of Values as a Foundation for Ecological Economics’, Ecological Economics, 1998, 26, 277–86.

    61. B. G. Norton and D. Noonan, ‘Ecology and Valuation: Big Changes Needed’, Ecological Economics, 2007, 63, 664–75.

    Part 10. Environmental Ethics

    62. A. Leopold, ‘The Land Ethic’, A Sand County Almanac and Sketches Here and There (Oxford University Press, 1949), pp. 201–26.

    63. R. Sylvan, ‘Is There a Need for a New, an Environmental, Ethic?’, Philosophy and Science: Morality and Culture: Technology and Man (Proceedings of the XVth World Congress of Philosophy, Varna, Bulgaria, Sofia, 1973), pp. 47–52

    64. W. Fox, ‘Ecophilosophy and Science’, The Environmentalist, 1994, 14, 3, 207–13.

    65. A. Naess, ‘The Shallow and the Deep, Long-Range Ecology Movement: Summary’, Inquiry: An Interdisciplinary Journal of Philosophy, 1973, 16, 1, 95–100.

    66. A. Naess, ‘A Defence of the Deep Ecology Movement’, Environmental Ethics, 1984, 6, 4, 265–70.

    67. J. B. Callicott, ‘The Metaphysical Implications of Ecology’, Environmental Ethics, 1986, 8, 301–16.

    68. K. Goodpaster, ‘On Being Morally Considerable’, Journal of Philosophy, 1978, 75, 308–25.

    69. M. E. Zimmerman, ‘Feminism, Deep Ecology, and Environmental Ethics’, Environmental Ethics, 1987, 9, 1, 21–44.

    70. K. Green, ‘Freud, Wollstonecraft, and Ecofeminism: A Defense of Liberal Feminism’, Environmental Ethics, 1994, 16, 2, 117–34.

    71. C. D. Stone, ‘Moral Pluralism and the Course of Environmental Ethics’, Environmental Ethics, 1988, 10, 2, 139–54.

    72. A. Brennan, ‘Moral Pluralism and the Environment’, Environmental Values, 1992, 1, 1, 15–33.

    73. J. F. O’Neill, ‘The Varieties of Intrinsic Value’, The Monist, 1992, 75, 119–37.

    74. K. McShane, ‘Why Environmental Ethics Shouldn’t Give up on Intrinsic Value’, Environmental Ethics, 2007, 29, 1, 43–61.

    75. W. F. Butler and T. G. Acott (2007) ‘An Inquiry Concerning the Acceptance of Intrinsic Value Theories of Nature’, Environmental Values, 2007, 16, 2, 149–68.

    76. V. Plumwood, ‘Tasteless: Towards a Food-Based Approach to Death’, Environmental Values, 2008, 17, 3, 323–30.

    Volume IV. Policy Problems and Approaches

    Part 11. Policy Analysis

    77. D. Bromley, ‘The Ideology of Efficiency: Searching for a Theory of Policy Analysis’, Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, 1990, 19, 86–107.

    Part 12. Learning from Ecosystems: Constraints and Management

    78. W. E. Rees, ‘Revisiting Carrying-Capacity: Area-Based Indicators of Sustainability’, Population and Environment, 1996, 17, 3, 195–215.

    79. C. S. Holling, ‘The Resilience of Terrestrial Ecosystems: Local Surprise and Global Change’, in W. C. Clark and R. E. Munn (eds.), Sustainable Development of the Biosphere (Cambridge University Press, 1986), pp. 292–317.

    80. C. J. Walters and C. S. Holling, ‘Large-Scale Management Experiments and Learning by Doing’, Ecology, 1990, 71, 6, 2060–8.

    81. D. Ludwig, R. Hilborn, and C. J. Walters, ‘Uncertainty, Resource Exploitation, and Conservation: Lessons from History’, Science, 1993, 260, 5104, 17 & 36.

    82. J. J. Kay et al., ‘An Ecosystem Approach for Sustainability: Addressing the Challenge of Complexity’, Futures, 1999, 31, 721–42.

    Part 13. Irreversibility, Uncertainty, and Ignorance

    83. S. Ciriacy-Wantrup, ‘A Safe Minimum Standard as an Objective of Conservation Policy’, Resource Conservation: Economics and Policies (University of California Press, 1952), pp. 251–68.

    84. R. Bishop, ‘Endangered Species and Uncertainty: The Economics of a Safe Minimum Standard’, American Journal of Agricultural Economics, 1978, 60, 10–18.

    85. I. Seidl and C. A. Tisdell, ‘Neglected Features of the Safe Minimum Standard: Socio-Economic and Institutional Dimensions’, Review of Social Economy, 2001, LIX, 4, 417–42.

    86. B. Wynne, ‘Uncertainty and Environmental Learning: Reconceiving Science and Policy in the Preventive Paradigm’, Global Environmental Change, June 1992, 111–27.

    87. M. Faber, R. Manstetten, and J. L. R. Proops, ‘Human Kind and the Environment: An Anatomy of Surprise and Ignorance’, Environmental Values, 1992, 1, 217–41.

    88. S. O. Funtowicz and J. R. Ravetz, ‘Science for the Post-Normal Age’, Futures, 1993, 25, 7, 739–55.

    89. J. P. van der Sluijs et al., ‘Combining Quantitative and Qualitative Measures of Uncertainty in Model-Based Environmental Assessment: The NUSAP System’, Risk Analysis, 2005, 25, 2, 481–92.

    90. A. Stirling and S. Mayer (2001) ‘A Novel Approach to the Appraisal of Technological Risk: A Multi-Criteria Mapping Study of a Genetically Modified Crop’, Environment & Planning C: Government & Policy, 2001, 19, 4, 529–55.

    Part 14. Group Norms, Values, and Motivation

    91. J. Gowdy, R. Iorgulescu, and S. Onyeiwu, ‘Fairness and Retaliation in a Rural Nigerian Village’, Journal of Economic Behavior and Organization, 2003, 52, 4, 469–79.

    92. B. S. Frey and F. Oberholzer-Gee, ‘The Cost of Price Incentives: An Empirical Analysis of Motivation Crowding-Out’, American Economic Review, 1997, 87, 4, 746–55.

    93. E. Claro, ‘Exchange Relationships and the Environment: The Acceptability of Compensation in the Siting of Waste Disposal Facilities’, Environmental Values, 2007, 16, 2, 187–208.

    Part 15. Participation, Representation, and Deliberation

    94. J. S. Dryzek, ‘Ecology and Discursive Democracy: Beyond Liberal Capitalism and the Administrative State’, Capitalism, Nature and Socialism, 1992, 3, 2, 18–42.

    95. B. Agrawal, ‘Participatory Exclusions, Community Forestry and Gender: An Analysis for South Asia and a Conceptual Framework’, World Development, 2001, 29, 1623–48.

    96. J. O’Neill, ‘Representing People, Representing Nature, Representing the World’, Environment and Planning C: Government and Policy, 2001, 19, 483–500.

    97. G. Kallis et al., ‘Participatory Methods for Water Resource Planning’, Environment & Planning C: Government & Policy, 2006, 24, 2, 215–34.

    98. H. Ward, ‘Citizens’ Juries and Valuing the Environment: A Proposal’, Environmental Politics, 1999, 8, 2, 75–96.

    99. C. L. Spash, ‘Deliberative Monetary Valuation and the Evidence for a New Value Theory’, Land Economics, 2008, 84, 3, 469–88.


    Professor Clive L. Spash is Science Leader at the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO), Sustainable Ecosystems Division, Australia.

    He has held posts as Research Chair in Environmental and Rural Economics at the University of Aberdeen, head of socio-economic research on the environment at the Macaulay Land Research Institute and within the Department of Land Economy at the University of Cambridge, and a similar position in the Economics Department at the University of Sterling.

    He was repeatedly elected to the executive of the European Society for Ecological Economics holding posts of Vice-President and President over a period of ten years.

    He is an editor for both Environmental Values and Government & Policy: Environment & Planning.