1st Edition

Ecology and Management of Black-tailed and Mule Deer of North America

Edited By James R. Heffelfinger, Paul R. Krausman Copyright 2023
    536 Pages 102 Color & 24 B/W Illustrations
    by CRC Press

    536 Pages 102 Color & 24 B/W Illustrations
    by CRC Press

    Black-tailed and mule deer represent one of the largest distributions of mammals in North America and are symbols of the wide-open American West. Each chapter in this book was authored by the world’s leading experts on that topic. Both editors, James R. Heffelfinger and Paul R. Krausman, are widely published in the popular and scientific press and recipients of the O. C. Wallmo Award, given every two years to a leading black-tailed and mule deer expert who has made significant contributions to the conservation of this species. In addition, Heffelfinger has chaired the Mule Deer Working Group sponsored by the Western Association of Fish and Wildlife Agencies for more than 15 years. This working group consists of the leading black-tailed and mule deer experts from each of 24 states, provinces, and territories in western North America, putting them at the forefront of all conservation and much of the research on this species.

    The book represents all current knowledge available on these deer, including how changing conditions such as fires, habitat alteration and loss, disease, climate change, socio-economic forces, energy development, and other aspects are influencing their distribution and abundance now and into the future. It takes a completely fresh look at all chapter topics. The revisions of distribution, taxonomy, evolution, behavior, and new and exciting work being done in deer nutrition, migration and movements, diseases, predation, and human dimensions are all assembled in this volume.

    This book will instantly become the foundation for the latest information and management strategies to be implemented on the ground by practitioners and to inform the public. Although this book is about deer, the topics discussed influence most terrestrial wildlife worldwide, and the basic concepts in many of the chapters are applicable to other species.

    Section I. Biology and Ecology

    Chapter 1. Origin, Classification, and Distribution

    James R. Heffelfinger and Emily K. Latch

    Chapter 2. Historical Trends in Black-Tailed Deer, Mule Deer, and Their Habitats

    William F. Jensen, Vernon C. Bleich, and Donald G. Whittaker

    Chapter 3. Physical Characteristics

    Levi J. Heffelfinger and James R. Heffelfinger

    Chapter 4. Digestive Physiology and Nutrition

    Kevin L. Monteith, Tayler N. LaSharr, Chad J. Bishop, Thomas R. Stephenson, Kelley M. Stewart, and Lisa A. Shipley

    Chapter 5. Modeling Population Dynamics of Black-Tailed and Mule Deer

    Paul M. Lukacs and J. Joshua Nowak

    Chapter 6. Diseases and Parasites

    Margo J. Pybus, Mary E. Wood, Karen A. Fox, and Brandon A. Munk

    Chapter 7. Carnivore-Prey Relationships

    Mark A. Hurley, Charles R. Anderson Jr., Tavis D. Forrester, and Justin A. Gude

    Chapter 8. Competition with Other Ungulates

    R. Terry Bowyer, Kelley M. Stewart, James W. Cain III, and Brock R. McMillan

    Section II. Ecoregion Habitats and Population Dynamics

    Chapter 9. Northern Forest Ecoregion

    Justin D. Gilligan, Darren A. Clark, Ethan S. Lula, Thomas A. Perry, Andrew B. D. Walker, and Laura B. Wolf

    Chapter 10. Coastal Rainforest Ecoregion

    DeWaine H. Jackson, Karin R. McCoy, Scott M. McCorquodale, Sara J. K. Hansen, Sean R. Pendergast, and David S. Casady

    Chapter 11. Intermountain West Ecoregion

    Kelley M. Stewart, Brian F. Wakeling, Justin M. Shannon, Cody Schroeder, Donald G. Whittaker, and Gary Bezzant

    Chapter 12. Great Plains Ecoregion

    Andrew J. Lindbloom, Peter J. Bauman, Melissa A. Foster, Lloyd B. Fox, Shawn S. Gray, Levi J. Heffelfinger, Luke R. Meduna, and Scott D. Stevens

    Chapter 13. California Chaparral and Oak Woodlands Ecoregion

    David S. Casady, Julie K. Garcia, and Kenneth E. Mayer

    Chapter 14. Southwest Deserts Ecoregion

    Orrin V. Duvuvuei, James R. Heffelfinger, Paul R. Krausman,

    Shawn S. Gray, and Carlos H. Alcalá-Galván

    Chapter 15. Colorado Plateau Shrubland and Forest Ecoregion

    Eric J. Bergman and Chad J. Bishop

    Section III. Population Management

    Chapter 16. Population Monitoring

    J. Joshua Nowak, Mark A. Hurley, Paul M. Lukacs, Daniel Walsh, and C. Leann White

    Chapter 17. Harvest Management

    Donald G. Whittaker, A. Andrew Holland, A. J. Lindbloom, and Thomas W. Keegan

    Chapter 18. Human Dimensions

    Terry A. Messmer, Edward B. Arnett, Steven R. Belinda, Kenneth E. Mayer, and Rob Southwick

    Section IV. Habitat Management

    Chapter 19. Conflict Management

    Brian F. Wakeling, Orrin V. Duvuvuei, Justin M. Shannon, Annette Roug, Chad Wilson, and Sara J. K. Hansen

    Chapter 20. Threats to Habitat Function

    Edward B. Arnett, Steven R. Belinda, Shawn Gray, Mike Ielmini, Brian Logan, Matt Pieron, and Ian Tator

    Chapter 21. Habitat Improvement and Water Supplementation

    Randy T. Larsen, Paul R. Krausman, Nicole Nielson, Jill Randall, Daniel D. Summers, and Covy D. Jones

    Chapter 22. Migration

    Matthew Kauffman, Rhiannon Jakopak, Lucas Olson, Anna Ortega, Jill Randall, Gabe Rozman, Jodi Berg, Scott Bergen, Julie K. Garcia, Evan Greenspan, Mark A. Hurley, and Cody Schroeder

    Section V. The Future

    Chapter 23. Challenges and Opportunities for the Future Conservation of Black-Tailed and Mule Deer

    Paul R. Krausman and James R. Heffelfinger


    James R. Heffelfinger is Wildlife Science Coordinator for Arizona Game and Fish Department and Full Research Scientist in the School of Natural Resources and the Environment at University of Arizona, Tucson. For the last 17 years, he has served as Chairman of the Mule Deer Working Group sponsored by the Western Association of Fish and Wildlife Agencies. This working group consists of the leading black-tailed or mule deer expert from each of 24 states, provinces, and territories in western North America. James is a Certified Wildlife Biologist, and recipient of the O. C. “Charlie” Wallmo Award for contributions to black-tailed and mule deer knowledge and conservation in North America, Mule Deer Foundation’s Professional of the Year Award, Lee Gladfelter Memorial Award, and Distinguished Alumnus University of Wisconsin – Stevens Point. He has authored and coauthored >65 scientific papers, 29 book chapters, 295 magazine articles, several TV scripts, and the book Deer of the Southwest published by Texas A&M University Press.

    Paul R. Krausman is Professor Emeritus from the School of Natural Resources and the Environment, University of Arizona, Tucson.  Paul is a Certified Wildlife Biologist, Wildlife Fellow, Honorary Member of The Wildlife Society, and served as faculty advisor for the student chapters of The Wildlife Society at Auburn, Arizona, and Montana.  He has served as editor, associate editor, and guest editor for numerous scientific outlets.  Paul has published 41 book chapters, 14 books, >100 conference proceedings, and >270 peer-reviewed monographs and manuscripts.  He has received numerous awards for his teaching and research including the O. C. “Charlie” Wallmo Award (1999), the Desert Ram Award (2000), and the Aldo Leopold Memorial Award (2006).

    This is not a book to be kept on a shelf for occasional, casual reading, nor can it be used effectively as a textbook on which to base an undergraduate or graduate course. Ecology and Management of Black‐Tailed and Mule Deer of North America is a comprehensive compilation of everything currently known about black‐tailed and mule deer. As such, it will be an invaluable resource for anyone with an interest in this iconic species. Graduate students
    needing to brush up on basic life‐history traits of mule or black‐tailed deer will find everything they need to know in these pages. Biologists and managers wanting to implement new strategies for monitoring deer populations or for modifying deer habitat will find clear, accessible guidance. Even non‐professionals will find this a useful reference. This is the bible for anyone interested in mule or black‐tailed deer, and I know my copy won't just sit on my shelf.

    Ryan A. Long, Department of Fish and Wildlife Sciences, University of Idaho, Moscow, Idaho, USA

    Representing three subspecies of Odocoileus hemionus, black-tailed and mule deer are the iconic deer of western North America. Significant culturally, historically, economically, and spiritually, these deer have drawn a significant amount of attention in both technical and popular outlets. Until now, the most comprehensive volume on these deer was Mule and Black-Tailed Deer of North America, compiled and ed. by Olof Wallmo (1981), comprising 15 essays by 12 contributors. In the 40-years since 1981 much has changed and much has been learned. Wildlife scientists and managers have long been concerned over the steady decline in mule deer populations. Heffelfinger and Krausman, both respected experts, brought together 15 essays by a total of 82 authors. Readers at all levels, whether scientists, wildlife managers, students, or wildlife enthusiasts, will find this book readable yet packed with the most current science and technical information. Examples of topics represented in the present volume but not in the earlier book include chronic wasting disease, migration ecology, integrated population modeling, genetics, and finer treatments of ecoregional differences. The editors' care with this volume is evident throughout. It will be the definitive reference for this species.

    -J. Organ, Emeritus, University of Massachusetts Amherst