As the challenge of preventing military conflict has become increasingly complex in the post-Cold War era, economic sanctions are being applied with growing frequency. Sanctions are also being used to enforce international law, to deter aggression and terrorism, to defend democracy and human rights, and to prevent nuclear proliferation. This study addresses questions about the utility, appropriateness and success or failure of sanctions, as well as their impact on the poor and innocent. Specific case studies, focusing on recent conflicts such as those in Haiti, Iraq, South Africa and the former Yugoslavia, demonstrate the principal aspects of economic sanctions.
Foreword -- International and National Experiences with Sanctions -- Economic Sanctions in Contemporary Global Relations -- The United Nations Experience with Sanctions -- Economic Sanctions as Tools of Foreign Policy -- A Review of Economic Sanctions: A Russian Perspective -- Assessing Sanctions -- Factors Affecting the Success of Sanctions -- The Problems and Promise of Sanctions -- Sanctions and International Law -- The Political and Moral Appropriateness of Sanctions -- Economic Sanctions and the Just-War Doctrine -- Case Studies -- UN Sanctions Against Iraq -- Economic Sanctions Against Iraq: Do They Contribute to a Just Settlement? -- The Use of Sanctions in Former Yugoslavia: Misunderstanding Political Realities -- The Use of Sanctions in Former Yugoslavia: Can They Assist in Conflict Resolution? -- The Use of Sanctions in Haiti: Assessing the Economic Realities -- Sanctions and Apartheid: The Economic Challenge to Discrimination -- The Future of Sanctions -- A Proposal for a New United Nations Council on Economic Sanctions -- Research Concerns and Policy Needs in an Era of Sanctions