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    What educational approaches best serve language-minority children? What policies, programmes, and circumstances encourage or contribute to minority-language maintenance? How do we make sense of the ecology of language development and socialization in non-traditional settings? And what is the relationship of language, learning, and technology?

    These are the kinds of dizzying questions addressed by those working in educational linguistics. The subdiscipline first came to prominence in the 1970s, and in recent decades it has expanded rapidly. It is now a well-established field of teaching and scholarly research.

    As serious academic thinking about and around educational linguistics continues to flourish and develop, this new title in the Routledge Major Works series, Critical Concepts in Linguistics, meets the need for an authoritative reference work to make sense of the subject’s vast literature and the continuing explosion in research output. Edited by Nancy H. Hornberger, Goldie Anna Professor of Education and Director of the Educational Linguistics Program at the University of Pennsylvania, USA, this Routledge Major Work is a six-volume collection of foundational and cutting-edge contributions.

    With a comprehensive introduction, newly written by the editor, which places the collected material in its historical and intellectual context, Educational Linguistics is an essential work of reference. It is destined to be valued by specialists and scholars working in the area—as well as by educational policy-makers and professionals—as a vital one-stop research tool.

    Volume I: Language Acquisition

    Child Language Acquisition

    1. Roman Jakobson, ‘The Sound Laws of Child Language and Their Place in General Phonology’, On Language, eds. L. Waugh and M. Monville-Burston (Harvard University Press, 1990), pp. 293–304.

    2. M. A. K. Halliday, ‘The Earliest Language’, Learning How to Mean: Explorations in the Development of Language (Edward Arnold, 1975), pp. 8–37.

    3. C. Ferguson, ‘Baby Talk as a Simplified Register’, in C. Snow and C. Ferguson (eds.), Talking to Children: Language Input and Acquisition (Cambridge University Press, 1978). pp. 209–35.

    4. J. Bruner, ‘The Growth of Reference’, Child’s Talk: Learning to Use Language (W.W. Norton, 1983), pp. 67–88.


    5. J. Cummins, ‘Linguistic Interdependence and the Educational Development of Bilingual Children’, Educational Research, 1979, 49, 2, 222–51.

    6. F. Grosjean, ‘The Bilingual as a Competent but Specific Speaker-Hearer’, Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development, 1985, 6, 6, 467–77.

    7. K. Hakuta, ‘The Bilingual Mind’, Mirror of Language (Basic Books, 1986), pp. 73–105.

    8. O. García, ‘Bilingualism and Translanguaging’, Bilingual Education in the 21st Century: A Global Perspective (Wiley-Blackwell, 2009), pp. 42–72.

    Communicative Competence/Repertoire

    9. D. H. Hymes, ‘On Communicative Competence’, in J. B. Pride and J. Holmes (eds.), Sociolinguistics: Selected Readings (Penguin, 1972), pp. 269–93.

    10. J. J. Gumperz, ‘The Speech Community’, in P. Giglioli (ed.), Language and Social Context (Penguin, 1972), pp. 219–30.

    11. N. H. Hornberger, ‘Trámites and Transportes: The Acquisition of Second Language Communicative Competence for One Speech Event in Puno, Peru’, Applied Linguistics, 1989, 10, 2, 214–30.

    12. B. Rymes, ‘Classroom Discourse Analysis: A Focus on Communicative Repertoires’, in N. H. Hornberger and S. L. McKay (eds.), Sociolinguistics and Language Education (Multilingual Matters, 2010), pp. 528–46.

    13. J. Blommaert and A. Backus, ‘Repertoires Revisited: "Knowing Language" in Superdiversity’, Working Papers in Urban Language and Literacies, 2011, 67.

    Language Socialization

    14. E. Ochs and B. Schieffelin, ‘Language Acquisition and Socialization: Three Developmental Stories and their Implications’, in R. A. Shweder and R. A. LeVine (eds.), Culture Theory: Essays on Mind, Self, and Emotion (Cambridge University Press), pp. 276–320.

    15. P. A. Duff, ‘The Discursive Co-construction of Knowledge, Identity, and Difference: An Ethnography of Communication in the High School Mainstream’, Applied Linguistics, 2002, 23, 3, 289–322.

    16. K. M. Howard, ‘"When Meeting Khun Teacher, Each Time We Should Pay Respect": Standardizing Respect in a Northern Thai Classroom’, Linguistics and Education, 2009, 20, 3, 254–72.

    Volume II: Language Diversity

    Language Inequality

    17. W. Lambert, ‘A Social Psychology of Bilingualism’, Journal of Social Issues, 1967, 23, 2, 91–109.

    18. D. Hymes, ‘Speech and Language: On the Origins and Foundations of Inequality Among Speakers’, in D. Hymes (ed.), Language in Education: Ethnolinguistic Essays (Center for Applied Linguistics, 1980), pp. 19–61.

    19. J. Blommaert, ‘Old and New Inequalities’, The Sociolinguistics of Globalization (Cambridge University Press, 2010), pp. 153–79.

    (Multilingual) Classroom Discourse/Participation Structures

    20. J. J. Gumperz, ‘Verbal Strategies in Multilingual Communication’, in R. Abrahams and R. C. Troike (eds.), Language and Cultural Diversity in American Education (Prentice Hall, 1972), pp. 184–95.

    21. S. Philips, ‘Participant Structures and Communicative Competence: Warm Springs Children in Community and Classroom’, in C. Cazden, V. John, and D. Hymes (eds.), Functions of Language in the Classroom (Teachers College Press, 1972), pp. 370–94.

    22. A. C. Zentella, ‘Tá Bien, You Could Answer Me En Cualquier Idioma: Puerto Rican Codeswitching in Bilingual Classrooms’, in R. Durán (ed.), Latino Language and Communicative Behavior (Ablex, 1981), pp. 109–31.

    23. J. K. Chick, ‘Safe-Talk: Collusion in Apartheid Education’, in H. Coleman (ed.), Society and the Language Classroom (Cambridge University Press, 1996), pp. 21–39.

    24. A. Blackledge and A. Creese, ‘Separate and Flexible Bilingualism in Complementary Schools’, Multilingualism: A Critical Perspective (Continuum, 2010), pp. 108–23.

    Culturally Relevant Pedagogy

    25. K. Au and C. Jordan, ‘Teaching Reading to Hawaiian Children: Finding a Culturally Appropriate Solution’, in H. T. Trueba, G. P. Guthrie, and K. H. Au (eds.), Culture and the Bilingual Classroom: Studies in Classroom Ethnography (Newbury House, 1981), pp. 139–52.

    26. F. Erickson and G. Mohatt, ‘Cultural Organization of Participation Structures in Two Classrooms of Indian Students’, in G. Spindler (ed.), Doing the Ethnography of Schooling: Educational Anthropology in Action (Holt, Rinehart, and Winston, 1982), pp. 132–74.

    27. A. B. Osborne, ‘Practice into Theory into Practice: Culturally Relevant Pedagogy for Students We Have Marginalized and Normalized’, Anthropology and Education Quarterly, 1996, 27, 3, 285–314.

    28. E. H. Trueba, ‘Critical Ethnography and a Vygotskian Pedagogy of Hope: The Case of Mexican Immigrant Children’, Latinos Unidos: From Cultural Diversity to the Politics of Solidarity (Rowman & Littlefield, 1999), pp. 125–51.

    Standard and Non-standard Languages

    29. S. B. Heath, ‘What No Bedtime Story Means: Narrative Skills at Home and School’, Language in Society, 1982, 11, 1, 49–76.

    30. A. M. Y. Lin, ‘Bilingualism or Linguistic Segregation? Symbolic Domination, Resistance, and Codeswitching’, Linguistics and Education, 1996, 8, 1, 49–84.

    31. H. S. Alim, ‘Critical Hip-Hop Language Pedagogies: Combat, Consciousness, and the Cultural Politics of Communication’, Journal of Language, Identity, and Education, 2007, 6, 2, 161–76.

    32. C. Genishi and A. H. Dyson, ‘Standardized Language, Standardized Childhood’, Children, Language, and Literacy: Diverse Learners in Diverse Times (Teachers College Press, 2009), pp. 11–34.

    Volume III: Language Teaching

    Bilingual Education

    33. J. A. Fishman, ‘Sociolinguistic Foundations of Bilingual Education’, Bilingual Review, 1982, 9, 1, 1–35.

    34. G. R. Tucker, ‘Implications of Canadian Research for Promoting a Language Competent American Society’, in J. A. Fishman et al. (eds.), The Fergusonian Impact, Vol. 2 (Mouton de Gruyter, 1986), pp. 361–9.

    35. C. Baker, ‘The Effectiveness of Bilingual Education’, Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development, 1999, 11, 4, 269–77.

    36. N. H. Hornberger, ‘Bilingual Education Policy and Practice in the Andes: Ideological Paradox and Intercultural Possibility’, Anthropology and Education Quarterly, 2000, 31, 2, 173–201.

    Interactional and Sociocultural Perspectives on Language (in) Pedagogy

    37. L. Moll and S. Díaz, ‘Ethnographic Pedagogy: Promoting Effective Bilingual Instruction’, in E. E. García and R. V. Padilla (eds.), Advances in Bilingual Education Research (University of Arizona Press, 1985), pp. 127–49.

    38. S. Wortham, ‘Participant Examples and Classroom Interaction’, Linguistics and Education, 1992, 4,195–217.

    39. K. D. Gutiérrez, P. Baquedano-López, and C. Tejeda, ‘Rethinking Diversity: Hybridity and Hybrid Language Practices in the Third Space’, Mind, Culture, and Activity: An International Journal, 1999, 6, 4, 286–303.

    40. T. Pica, H. S. Kang, and S. Sauro, ‘Information Gap Tasks: Their Multiple Roles and Contributions to Interaction Research Methodology’, Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 2006, 28, 2, 301–38.

    41. C. Kramsch, ‘Ecological Perspectives on Foreign Language Education’, Language Teaching, 2008, 41, 3, 389–408.

    Language Awareness and Critical Language Awareness

    42. R. Clark et al., ‘Critical Language Awareness Part I: A Critical Review of Three Current Approaches to Language Awareness’, Language and Education, 1990, 4, 4, 249–60.

    43. R. Clark et al., ‘Critical Language Awareness Part II: Towards Critical Alternatives’, Language and Education, 1991, 5, 1, 41–54.

    44. H. S. Alim, ‘Critical Language Awareness in the United States: Revisiting Issues and Revising Pedagogies in a Resegregated Society’, Educational Researcher, 2005, 34, 7, 24–31.

    45. C. Hélot and A. Young, ‘Imagining Multilingual Education in France: A Language and Cultural Awareness Project at Primary Level’, in O. García, T. Skutnabb-Kangas, and M. E. Torres-Guzmán (eds.), Imagining Multilingual Schools: Languages in Education and Glocalization (Multilingual Matters, 2006), pp. 69–90.

    Testing and Assessment

    46. J. Cummins, ‘Tests, Achievement and Bilingual Students’, NCBE Focus, 1982, 9, 1–7.

    47. E. Shohamy, ‘Assessment in Multicultural Societies: Applying Democratic Principles and Practices to Language Testing’, in B. Norton and K. Toohey (eds.), Critical Pedagogies and Language Learning (Cambridge University Press, 2004), pp. 72–92.

    48. C. Baker, ‘The Measurement of Bilingualism’, Foundations of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism, 5th edn. (Multilingual Matters, 2011), pp. 18–40.

    49. K. Escamilla, ‘Monolingual Assessment and Emerging Bilinguals: A Case Study in the US’, in O. García, T. Skutnabb-Kangas, and M. T. Guzmán (eds.), Imagining Multilingual Schools: Languages in Education and Glocalization (Multilingual Matters, 2006), pp. 184–99.

    50. K. Menken, ‘High-Stakes Testing and Language Un-Planning: Theoretical Implications of Testing as Language Policy’, English Learners Left Behind: Standardized Testing as Language Policy (Multilingual Matters, 2008), pp. 160–80.

    51. Y. G. Butler, ‘How Do Teachers Observe and Evaluate Elementary School Students’ Foreign Language Performance? A Case Study from South Korea’, TESOL Quarterly, 2009, 43, 3, 417–44.

    Volume IV: Language Policy

    Language Policy and Planning Processes

    52. C. A. Ferguson, ‘Language Development’, in J. Fishman, C. A. Ferguson, and J. D. Gupta (eds.), Language Problems of Developing Nations (John Wiley and Sons, 1968), pp. 27–35.

    53. E. Haugen, ‘The Implementation of Corpus Planning: Theory and Practice’, in J. Cobarrubias (ed.), Progress in Language Planning: International Perspectives (Mouton, 1983), pp. 269–90.

    54. R. L. Cooper, ‘Definitions: A Baker’s Dozen’, Language Planning and Social Change (Cambridge University Press, 1989), pp. 29–45.

    Language Policy and Planning and Ideology

    55. R. Ruiz, ‘Orientations in Language Planning’, NABE Journal, 1984, 8, 2, 15–34.

    56. S. B. Heath, ‘Bilingual Education and a National Language Policy’, in J. E. Alatis and J. J. Staczek (eds.), Perspectives on Bilingualism and Bilingual Education (Georgetown University Press, 1985), pp. 75–88.

    57. M. Heller, ‘Language Choice, Social Institutions, and Symbolic Domination’, Language in Society, 1995, 24, 3, 373–405.

    58. T. G. Wiley and W. E. Wright, ‘Against the Undertow: Language-Minority Education Policy and Politics in the "Age of Accountability"’, Educational Policy, 2004, 18, 1, 142–68.

    59. T. L. McCarty, M. E. Romero-Little, and O. Zepeda, ‘Native American Youth Discourses on Language Shift and Retention: Ideological Cross-Currents and their Implications for Language Planning’, International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism, 2006, 9, 5, 659–77.

    Ethnography of Language Policy

    60. N. H. Hornberger, ‘Bilingual Education Success, But Policy Failure’, Language in Society, 1987, 16, 2, 205–26.

    61. S. Canagarajah, ‘Ethnographic Methods in Language Policy’, in T. Ricento (ed.), An Introduction to Language Policy: Theory and Method (Blackwell, 2006), pp. 153–69.

    62. N. H. Hornberger and D. C. Johnson, ‘Slicing the Onion Ethnographically: Layers and Spaces in Multilingual Language Education Policy and Practice’, TESOL Quarterly, 2007, 41, 3, 509–32.

    63. A. Jaffe, ‘Codeswitching and Stance: Issues in Interpretation’, Journal of Language, Identity, and Education, 2007, 6, 1, 53–77.

    64. M. Martin-Jones, ‘Bilingualism, Education and the Regulation of Access to Language Resources’, in M. Heller (ed.), Bilingualism: A Social Approach (Palgrave, 2007), pp. 161–82.

    Educators as Language Policy Makers

    65. T. K. Ricento and N. H. Hornberger, ‘Unpeeling the Onion: Language Planning and Policy and the ELT Professional’, TESOL Quarterly, 1996, 30, 3, 401–28.

    66. D. Corson, ‘Reforming Education for Diversity: Leavening Power with Social Justice’, Changing Education for Diversity (Open University Press, 1998), pp. 1–24.

    67. N. H. Hornberger, ‘The Continua of Biliteracy and the Bilingual Educator: Educational Linguistics in Practice’, International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism, 2004, 7, 2/3, 155–71.

    68. J. Lo Bianco, ‘Language Policy and Planning’, in N. H. Hornberger and S. L. McKay (eds.), Sociolinguistics and Language Education (Multilingual Matters, 2010), pp. 143–74.

    69. D. C. Johnson and R. Freeman, ‘Appropriating Language Policy on the Local Level: Working the Spaces for Bilingual Education’, in K. Menken and O. García (eds.), Negotiating Language Policies in Schools: Educators as Policymakers (Routledge, 2010), pp. 13–31.

    Volume V: Language Ecology

    Multilingualism and Ecology of Language

    70. E. Haugen, ‘The Curse of Babel’, in M. Bloomfield and E. Haugen (eds.), Language as a Human Problem (W. W. Norton, 1973), pp. 33–43.

    71. B. Spolsky and P. Irvine, ‘Sociolinguistic Aspects of the Acceptance of Literacy in the Vernacular’, in F. Barkin, E. Brandt, and J. Ornstein-Galicia (eds.), Bilingualism and Language Contact: Spanish, English, and Native American Languages (Teachers’ College Press, 1982), pp. 73–9.

    72. R. Phillipson and T. Skutnabb-Kangas, ‘English Only Worldwide or Language Ecology?’, TESOL Quarterly, 1996, 30, 3, 429–52.

    Multilingualism and Education

    73. L. M. Khubchandani, ‘Defining Mother Tongue Education in Plurilingual Contexts’, Language Policy, 2003, 2, 3, 239–54.

    74. A. K. Mohanty, ‘Multilingualism of the Unequals and Predicaments of Education in India: Mother Tongue or Other Tongue?’, in O. García, T. Skutnabb-Kangas, and M. T. Guzmán (eds.), Imagining Multilingual Schools: Languages in Education and Glocalization (Multilingual Matters, 2006), pp. 262–83.

    75. R. E. Hamel, ‘Plurilingual Latin America: Indigenous languages, Immigrant Languages, Foreign Languages—Towards an Integrated Policy of Language and Education’, in C. Hélot and A.-M. d. Mejía (eds.), Forging Multilingual Spaces: Integrated Perspectives on Majority and Minority Bilingual Education (Multilingual Matters, 2008), pp. 58–108.

    76. L. E. López, ‘Top-Down and Bottom-Up: Counterpoised Visions of Bilingual Intercultural Education in Latin America’, in N. H. Hornberger (ed.), Can Schools Save Indigenous Languages? Policy and Practice on Four Continents (Palgrave, 2008), pp. 42–65.

    Biliteracy and Translanguaging

    77. N. H. Hornberger, ‘Multilingual Language Policies and the Continua of Biliteracy: An Ecological Approach’, Language Policy, 2002, 1, 1, 27–51.

    78. C. Baker, ‘Biliteracy and Transliteracy in Wales: Language Planning and the Welsh National Curriculum’, in N. H. Hornberger (ed.), Continua of Biliteracy: An Ecological Framework for Educational Policy, Research, and Practice in Multilingual Settings (Multilingual Matters, 2003), pp. 71–90.

    79. C. Bloch and N. Alexander, ‘A Luta Continua! The Relevance of the Continua of Biliteracy to South African Multilingual Schools’, in N. H. Hornberger (ed.), Continua of Biliteracy: An Ecological Framework for Educational Policy, Research, and Practice in Multilingual Settings (Multilingual Matters, 2003), pp. 91–121.

    80. A. Blackledge and A. Creese, ‘Translanguaging as Pedagogy in the Bilingual Classroom’, Multilingualism: A Critical Perspective (Continuum, 2010), pp. 201–14.

    Literacies and Multiliteracies

    81. P. Freire, ‘The Adult Literacy Process as Cultural Action for Freedom’, Harvard Educational Review, 1970, 40, 2, 205–25.

    82. B. Street, ‘What is Meant by Local Literacies?’, Language and Education, 1994, 8, 1/2, 9–17.

    83. C. Cazden et al., ‘A Pedagogy of Multiliteracies: Designing Social Futures’, Harvard Educational Review, 1996, 66, 1, 60–92.

    84. H. Janks, ‘Domination, Access, Diversity and Design: A Synthesis for Critical Literacy Education’, Educational Review, 2000, 52, 2, 175–86.

    85. J. Cummins, ‘Identity Texts: The Imaginative Construction of Self Through Multiliteracies Pedagogy’, in O. García, T. Skutnabb-Kangas, and M. T. Guzmán (eds.), Imagining Multilingual Schools: Languages in Education and Glocalization (Multilingual Matters, 2006), pp. 51–68.

    Volume VI: language identity

    Language Practices and Identity Construction

    86. F. Erickson, ‘Gatekeeping and the Melting Pot: Interaction in Counseling Encounters’, Harvard Educational Review, 1975, 45, 1, 44–70.

    87. B. Rampton, ‘Crossing and the Sociolinguistics of Language Contact’, Crossing: Language and Ethnicity Among Adolescents (Longman, 1995), pp. 275–302, 336–44.

    88. N. Mendoza-Denton, ‘Smile Now Cry Later: Memorializing Practices Linking Language, Materiality, and Embodiment’, Homegirls: Language and Cultural Practice Among Latina Youth Gangs (Blackwell, 2008), pp. 177–206.

    89. J. Jaspers, ‘Style and Styling’, in N. H. Hornberger and S. L. McKay (eds.), Sociolinguistics and Language Education (Multilingual Matters, 2010), pp. 177–204.

    90. A. Pennycook, ‘Nationalism, Identity and Popular Culture’, in N. H. Hornberger and S. L. McKay (eds.), Sociolinguistics and Language Education (Multilingual Matters, 2010), pp. 62–86.

    Identity and Language Learning

    91. B. Norton Peirce, ‘Social Identity, Investment, and Language Learning’, TESOL Quarterly, 1995, 29, 1, 9–31.

    92. S. L. McKay and S. Wong, ‘Multiple Discourses, Multiple Identities: Investment and Agency in Second-Language Learning Among Chinese Adolescent Immigrant Students’, Harvard Educational Review, 1996, 66, 3, 577–608.

    93. A. Pomerantz, "Tú necesitas preguntar en Español": Negotiating Good Language Learner Identity in a Spanish Classroom’, Journal of Language, Identity, and Education, 2008, 7, 3–4, 253–71.

    Heritage Language Education and Minority Language Rights

    94. J. A. Fishman, ‘The Significance of the Ethnic-Community Mother-Tongue School’, in J. A. Fishman (ed.), The Rise and Fall of the Ethnic Revival (Mouton, 1985), pp. 363–76.

    95. G. Valdés, ‘Dual-Language Immersion Programs: A Cautionary Note Concerning the Education of Language-Minority Students’, Harvard Educational Review, 1997, 67, 3, 391–429.

    96. N. H. Hornberger, ‘Language Policy, Language Education, Language Rights: Indigenous, Immigrant, and International Perspectives’, Language in Society, 1998, 27, 4, 439–58.

    97. S. May, ‘Rearticulating the Case for Minority Language Rights’, Current Issues in Language Planning, 2003, 4, 2, 95–125.

    98. N. M. Kamwangamalu, ‘Vernacularization, Globalization, and Language Economics in Non-English-Speaking Countries in Africa’, Language Problems and Language Planning, 2010, 34, 1, 1–23.

    Indigenous Language Revitalization and Reversing Language Shift

    99. B. Spolsky, ‘Linguistics in Practice: The Navajo Reading Study’, Theory into Practice, 1975, 14, 5, 347–52.

    100. J. Fishman, ‘Theoretical Recapitulation: What is Reversing Language Shift (RLS) and How Can it Succeed?’, in J. Fishman (ed.), Reversing Language Shift (Multilingual Matters, 1991), pp. 381–419.

    101. N. H. Hornberger and K. A. King, ‘Language Revitalisation in the Andes: Can the Schools Reverse Language Shift?’, Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development, 1996, 17, 6, 427–41.

    102. S. Romaine, ‘Planning for the Survival of Linguistic Diversity’, Language Policy, 2006, 5, 441–73.

    103. Leena Huss, ‘Revitalization Through Indigenous Education: A Forlorn Hope?’, in N. H. Hornberger (ed.), Can Schools Save Indigenous Languages? Policy and Practice on Four Continents (Palgrave, 2008), pp. 125–35.


    Nancy H. Hornberger, Goldie Anna Professor of Education and Director, Educational Linguistics Program, Language and Literacy in Education Division, Graduate School of Education, University of Pennsylvania, USA