Egypt, Old and New (RLE Egypt)
A popular account. With many engravings, nearly 50 coloured plates and a map
A work of history, culture, politics, economics, packed with period photographs and period insights.
Table of Contents
Introduction. 1. Superficial Area. Upper and Lower Egypt. Population. The Numbering of the People. Sunshine and Life. Effect upon Disease. Worship of Ra, the Sun God. Atmospheric Changes. Medical Properties. Cairo Not a Health Resort. Heliopolis. Helwan. The Pyramids. The Rainy Season. An Egyptian Summer. Effect Upon Europeans. Fayyum. Egypt’s Oldest Agricultural Colony 2. The Nile. Sunrise and Sunset. Scenery and Silence. Why the Egyptians Worshipped It. Course from Cradle to Sea. The Cataracts. Nile Gauges and their Uses. Ancient and Modern Methods of Computation. Roda Island Nilometer. Rise and Fall of the River Throughout the Year. Control of Flood in Olden Days. The Corvee. The Cost to Egypt of its Abolition. Modern Methods 3. Historical Importance of Egypt. Not the Oldest of Primitive People. What Their Records Tell Us. Mariette. Services to Egyptology. Life and Death. Discoveries at Sakkara. The Step Pyramid. Mexican Pyramid of Cholula. The Necropolis. Ancient Burials. Evolution of the Tomb. The Embalmers. Character of Tomb Structure. Climbing the Pyramid. Burial Customs of Other Nations Compared. Mastara Tombs. Architectural Surprises. Authors to Read on Ancient Egypt 4. Thebes. Its Former Magnificence. Temples the Wonder of the World. Birthplace of Many Dynasties. Decline of Splendour. Mariette’s Discoveries. Restoration of the Great Temple of Ammon. Luxor and its Wonderful Remains. Karnak and its Pylons. Discoveries of Festival Hall and other Gigantic Ruins. Fortified Cities. Shallow Foundations Astound Modern Architects. Secet of Long-Standing Structures. Fall of Columns at Karnak 5. Elephantine Island. Importance to Egyptians and Romans. The Nilometer. How it Foretold Prosperity or Famine. Reading of the Gauge. Scenic Attractiveness. Notable Temples and Gods. Waste of Human Life. How the Island Derived its Name. Assuan and its Granite Quarries. Ruins of Swenet. Juvenal’s Punishment. The Solar Wonder of Syrene. Fate of Eratosthenes 6. Memphis. Exploration Neglected. Glories of the First City of Egypt. Immense Temples. Finest School of Art. Rescue of the Colossal Statues of Ramses II. Vicissitudes of the Ancient City. Destruction by Theodosius. The Pyramids. Who Built Them?. The Sphinx. Destruction by Arabs 7. Cairo. European Quarter. Modern Street Incongruities. When to See the Old City. The Bazaars. Native Quarters. Relics of Former Grandeur. Hotel Life. War Experiences. Museum Attractions. Palace of Gizeh. Alone With a Dead Civilisation. Debt to Egyptologists. Early Dwellings. Relics from Abydos 8. Port Said. Inception and Creation. M. de Lesseps and His Scheme. British Opposition to Project and Subsequent Regrets. Engineering Difficulties Overcome. First Glimpse of Port Said. Streets, Houses and Inhabitants. The Bad Old Days. Modern Purification. Excursion Attractions. Physical Features of Canal. British Share-Holding and Control. Tonnage Nationality. A Visit to Suez 9. Alexandria. Its Founder. The Romantic Prince of Macedonia Dies Young. Importance of Town in Greek and Roman Days. Gathering of World’s Distinguished Men. The Famous Library and Museum. Destruction of Priceless Documents. Julius Caesar’s Vandalism. Pompey’s Pillar. Alexandria Under the Ottomans. Harbour Improvements. An Oriental City No Longer. Modern Street Nomenclature. Utility of Port During the War 10. The Egyptians. Ages of Cultivation. The Fellah. Physiognomy Unchanged. How He Lives, Eats and Dresses. The Copts. Love of Finery. The Bedouins. A Fellah at Home. His Hut and Surroundings. Today’s Improved Conditions. Egyptian Women. Little Expended Upon Dress. Child-Life and Mortality. Education Among Women. Girls and Their Schooling. The Muhammedan Attitude Towards Females 11. The French in Egypt. British Position Challenged But Consolidated. Arabi Insurrection. Advantage to Egypt. Financial Regeneration. Tax Abolitions. Lord Cromer’s Services. Financial Advisers. Treachery of Khedive Abbas II (Hilmi). After Forty Years’ Tutelage Egyptians To Rule Egypt. Starting With Good Prospects 12. Egyptian Monarchy. Early Women Sovereigns. Muhammad Ali and His Dynasty. Forty Years’ Eventful Reign. Ibrahim’s Short Rule. Abbas I Meets a Just Fate. Said Succeeds. Notable Reign. Friend of Lesseps and Supporter of Suez Canal. Ishmail, First Khedive and Spendthrift. Tewfik’s Difficult Period. Abbas Hilmi, Enemy of England. Dethroned and Banished. Hussein First Sultan. His Death. Fuad Successively Sultan and King. Line of Succession Assured. Rescript of April, 1922 13. Armies. Old and New. Ancient Fighting Forces. Remarkable Victories. Marathon, and After. Reforming the Egyptian Army. Sir Evelyn Wood. Results of Training. The Fellah as a Soldier. What He Was and Is. The Spirit of Mutiny. Not Yet Subdued. Events of March, 1922. Previous Mutinies of 1879 and 1882. Arabi’s Rebellion. Present Strength of Army on Peace Footing. Flying Training School. Death of a Gallant Officer 14. Irrigation. Under the Pashas. The Corvee. Some Distinguished Engineers. Early Egyptian Works. The Barrages. Sir Colin Scott-Moncrieff. Assuan Reservoir. Irrigation Department. Experts Disagree. Nile Commission’s Report Upon Projects. Mr CE Dupois. Further Works to be Undertaken. Need for Further Water Supply. Central Delta Scheme 15. Cotton. Qualities Grown. Egypt’s Production. Lord Kitchener’s Efforts. Importance of Cultivation. Points for Fellahin. Lancashire’s Requirements. Research Work. Egyptian Government Purchases. Sustaining Alexandrian Market. Failure of Policy. Sugar. Varieties Cultivated. Factories on the Nile. Machinery Used. British Plant Favoured 16. Education. Suppression Under Ottoman Rule. Yacoub Artin Pasha. Lord Cromer’s Opinions. High Percentage of Illiterates. El-Azhar University. Political Influence. Out of date and Useless Methods. A Modern Babel. Teaching the Koran. Living on the University. Relations Between Professors and Students. Sudan Instruction Compared. Gordon College at Khartoum. New State University. Law, Medicine and Police Schools. Attendance and Teaching at Kuttabs. Annual Cost of Education. Departure of British Adviser 17. The Law. Appointment of Judicial Adviser. The First Selection. The Late Sir John Scott. Capitulations. Their Origin, Uses and Abuses. Lord Cromer’s Opinions. Future Status of Foreigners. Mixed Tribunals. Confused Judicial System. ‘A Legislative Babel’. Dignity of Ermine Imperilled. Salaries of Judges. Appeal for Increase. Alternative to a Refusal 18. Railway Systems. Combined Administration A Failure. British Control Brings Prosperity. Long Journeys. Speed and Safety. Cape To Cairo Route. A Commemorative Publication. Construction During the War. Decauville Light Lines. Oases Railways. The Route of the Exodus?. Steamship Connections. Greek Lines. Freights and ‘Rings’. Shipper’s Misgivings 19. Athletics Formerly a Feature of Egyptian Life. Introduced by Greeks. Love of Sport Waning. Horse-racing Alone Popular. British Participation. Alexandria and Cairo Courses. Notable Riders. Heliopolis Course. Gezireh Sporting Club. Exclusiveness in Membership. Egyptians Not Welcome. Peculiarities of British Membership. Jockey Club of Egypt. Meeting Fixtures. Conclusion. Index.