Electric Generators Handbook - Two Volume Set: 2nd Edition (Hardback) book cover

Electric Generators Handbook - Two Volume Set

2nd Edition

By Ion Boldea

CRC Press

1,058 pages | 803 B/W Illus.

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Hardback: 9781498723411
pub: 2015-10-08
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Electric Generators Handbook, Second Edition: Two-Volume Set supplies state-of-the-art tools necessary to design, validate, and deploy the right power generation technologies to fulfill tomorrow's complex energy needs.

The first volume, Synchronous Generators, explores large- and medium-power synchronous generator topologies, steady state, modeling, transients, control, design, and testing. Numerous case studies, worked-out examples, sample results, and illustrations highlight the concepts. Fully revised and updated to reflect the last decade’s worth of progress in the field, the Second Edition adds coverage of high-power wind generators with fewer or no PMs, PM-assisted DC-excited salient pole synchronous generators, autonomous synchronous generators’ control, line switching parameter identification for isolated grids, synthetic back-to-back load testing with inverter supply, and more.

The second volume, Variable Speed Generators, provides extensive coverage of variable speed generators in distributed generation and renewable energy applications around the world. Numerous design and control examples illustrate the exposition. Fully revised and updated to reflect the last decade’s worth of progress in the field, the Second Edition adds material on doubly fed induction generator control under unbalanced voltage sags and nonlinear loads, interior permanent magnet claw-pole-alternator systems, high power factor Vernier PM generators, PM-assisted reluctance synchronous motors/generators for electric hybrid vehicles, and more.


"… condenses in two volumes the most advanced knowledge on electric generators available in the technical literature. The presentation is clear and progressive. New perspectives are analyzed."

—Fabrizio Marignetti, University of Cassino and Southern Lazio, Italy

"A comprehensive handbook of electric generators that is ideal for graduate-level machines courses."

—Pourya Shamsi, Missouri University of Science and Technology, Rolla, USA

"… covers the whole range of electric generators, which is unique, and at the same time discusses how to use them with power electronics technology, making the book really worthwhile to read."

—Frede Blaabjerg, Aalborg University, Denmark

Table of Contents

Electric Energy and Electric Generators


Major Energy Sources

Limitations of Electric Power Generation

Electric Power Generation

From Electric Generators to Electric Loads



Principles of Electric Generators

Three Types of Electric Generators

Synchronous Generators

Permanent Magnet Synchronous Generators

Homopolar Synchronous Generator

Induction Generator

Wound-Rotor Doubly Fed Induction Generator

Parametric Generators

Electric Generator Applications

High-Power Wind Generators



Prime Movers


Steam Turbines

Steam Turbine Modeling

Speed Governors for Steam Turbines

Gas Turbines

Diesel Engines

Stirling Engines

Hydraulic Turbines

Wind Turbines



Large- and Medium-Power Synchronous Generators: Topologies and Steady State


Construction Elements

Excitation Magnetic Field

Two-Reaction Principle of Synchronous Generators

Armature Reaction Field and Synchronous Reactances

Equations for Steady State with Balanced Load

Phasor Diagram

Inclusion of Core Losses in the Steady-State Model

Autonomous Operation of Synchronous Generators

SG Operation at Power Grid (in Parallel)

Unbalanced Load Steady-State Operation

Measuring Xd, Xq, Z, Z0

Phase-to-Phase Short Circuit

Synchronous Condenser

PM-Assisted DC-Excited Salient Pole Synchronous Generators

Multiphase Synchronous Machine Inductances via Winding Function Method



Synchronous Generators: Modeling for Transients


Phase-Variable Model

dq Model

Per Unit (P.U.) dq Model

Steady State via the dq Model

General Equivalent Circuits

Magnetic Saturation Inclusion in the dq Model

Operational Parameters

Standstill Time-Domain Response Provoked Transients

Standstill Frequency Response

Simplified Models for Power System Studies

Mechanical Transients

Small Disturbance Electromechanical Transients

Large Disturbance Transients Modeling

Finite-Element SG Modeling

SG Transient Modeling for Control Design



Control of Synchronous Generators in Power Systems


Speed Governing Basics

Time Response of Speed Governors

Automatic Generation Control

Time Response of Speed (Frequency) and Power Angle

Voltage and Reactive Power Control Basics

Automatic Voltage Regulation Concept


Exciter’s Modeling

Basic AVRs

Underexcitation Voltage

Power System Stabilizers

Coordinated AVR-PSS and Speed Governor Control

FACTS-Added Control of SG

Subsynchronous Oscillations

Subsynchronous Resonance

Note on Autonomous Synchronous Generators’ Control



Design of Synchronous Generators


Specifying Synchronous Generators for Power Systems

Output Power Coefficient and Basic Stator Geometry

Number of Stator Slots

Design of Stator Winding

Design of Stator Core

Salient: Pole Rotor Design

Damper Cage Design

Design of Cylindrical Rotors

Open-Circuit Saturation Curve

On-Load Excitation mmf F1n

Inductances and Resistances

Excitation Winding Inductances

Damper Winding Parameters

Solid Rotor Parameters

SG Transient Parameters and Time Constants

Electromagnetic Field Time Harmonics

Slot Ripple Time Harmonics

Losses and Efficiency

Exciter Design Issues

Optimization Design Issues

Generator/Motor Issues



Testing of Synchronous Generators

Acceptance Testing

Testing for Performance (Saturation Curves, Segregated Losses, and Efficiency)

Excitation Current under Load and Voltage Regulation

Need for Determining Electrical Parameters

Per Unit Values

Tests for Parameters under Steady State

Tests to Estimate the Subtransient and Transient Parameters

Transient and Subtransient Parameters from d and q Axis Flux Decay Test at Standstill

Subtransient Reactances from Standstill Single-Frequency AC Tests

Standstill Frequency Response Tests

Online Identification of SG Parameters



Wound-Rotor Induction Generators: Steady State


Construction Elements

Steady-State Equations

Equivalent Circuit

Phasor Diagrams

Operation at the Power Grid

Autonomous Operation of WRIGs

Operation of WRIGs in the Brushless Exciter Mode

Losses and Efficiency of WRIGs



Wound-Rotor Induction Generators: Transients and Control


WRIG Phase Coordinate Model

Space-Phasor Model of WRIG

Space-Phasor Equivalent Circuits and Diagrams

Approaches to WRIG Transients

Static Power Converters for WRIGs

Vector Control of WRIG at Power Grid

Direct Power Control of WRIG at Power Grid

Independent Vector Control of Positive and Negative Sequence Currents

Motion-Sensorless Control

Vector Control in Stand-Alone Operation

Self-Starting, Synchronization, and Loading at the Power Grid

Voltage and Current Low-Frequency Harmonics of WRIG

Ride-Through Control of DFIG under Unbalanced Voltage Sags

Stand-Alone DFIG Control under Unbalanced Nonlinear Loads



Wound-Rotor Induction Generators: Design and Testing


Design Specifications: An Example

Stator Design

Rotor Design

Magnetization Current

Reactances and Resistances

Electrical Losses and Efficiency

Testing of WRIGs



Self-Excited Induction Generators


Principle of Cage-Rotor Induction Machine

Self-Excitation: A Qualitative View

Steady-State Performance of Three-Phase SEIGs

Performance Sensitivity Analysis

Pole Changing SEIGs for Variable Speed Operation

Unbalanced Operation of Three-Phase SEIGs

One Phase Open at Power Grid

Three-Phase SEIG with Single-Phase Output

Two-Phase SEIGs with Single-Phase Output

Three-Phase SEIG Transients

Parallel Connection of SEIGs

Direct Connection to Grid Transients in Cage-Rotor Induction Generators

More on Power Grid Disturbance Transients in Cage-Rotor Induction Generators



Stator-Converter-Controlled Induction Generators


Grid-Connected SCIGs: The Control System

Grid Connection and Four-Quadrant Operation of SCIGs

Stand-Alone Operation of SCIG

Parallel Operation of SCIGs

Static Capacitor Exciter Stand-Alone IG for Pumping Systems

Operation of SCIGs with DC Voltage-Controlled Output

Stand-Alone SCIG with AC Output and Low Rating PWM Converter

Dual Stator Winding for Grid Applications

Twin Stator Winding SCIG with 50% Rating Inverter and Diode Rectifier

Dual Stator Winding IG with Nested Cage Rotor



Automotive Claw-Pole-Rotor Generator Systems


Construction and Principle

Magnetic Equivalent Circuit Modeling

Three-Dimensional Finite Element Method Modeling

Losses, Efficiency, and Power Factor

Design Improvement Steps

Lundell Starter/Generator for Hybrid Vehicles

IPM Claw-Pole Alternator System for More Vehicle Braking Energy Recuperation: A Case Study



Induction Starter/Alternators for Electric Hybrid Vehicles

Electric Hybrid Vehicle Configuration

Essential Specifications

Topology Aspects of Induction Starter/Alternator

ISA Space-Phasor Model and Characteristics

Vector Control of ISA


ISA Design Issues for Variable Speed



Permanent-Magnet-Assisted Reluctance Synchronous Starter/Alternators for Electric Hybrid Vehicles


Topologies of PM-RSM

Finite Element Analysis

dq Model of PM-RSM

Steady-State Operation at No Load and Symmetric Short Circuit

Design Aspects for Wide Speed Range Constant Power Operation

Power Electronics for PM-RSM for Automotive Applications

Control of PM-RSM for EHV

State Observers without Signal Injection for Motion Sensorless Control

Signal Injection Rotor Position Observers

Initial and Low-Speed Rotor Position Tracking

50/100 kW, 1350–7000 rpm (600 Nm Peak Torque, 40 kg) PM-Assisted Reluctance Synchronous Motor/Generator for HEV: A Case Study



Switched Reluctance Generators and Their Control


Practical Topologies and Principles of Operation

SRG(M) Modeling

Flux/Current/Position Curves

Design Issues

PWM Converters for SRGs

Control of SRG(M)s

Direct Torque Control of SRG(M)

Rotor Position and Speed Observers for Motion-Sensorless Control

Output Voltage Control in SRG

Double Stator SRG with Segmented Rotor



Permanent Magnet Synchronous Generator Systems


Practical Configurations and Their Characterization

Air Gap Field Distribution, emf, and Torque

Stator Core Loss Modeling

Circuit Model

Circuit Model of PMSG with Shunt Capacitors and AC Load

Circuit Model of PMSG with Diode Rectifier Load

Utilization of Third Harmonic for PMSG with Diode Rectifiers

Autonomous PMSGs with Controlled Constant Speed and AC Load

Grid-Connected Variable-Speed PMSG System

PM Genset with Multiple Outputs

Super-High-Speed PM Generators: Design Issues

Super-High-Speed PM Generators: Power Electronics Control Issues

Design of a 42 Vdc Battery-Controlled-Output PMSG System

Methods for Testing PMSGs

Grid to Stand-Alone Transition Motion-Sensorless Dual-Inverter Control of PMSG with Asymmetrical Grid Voltage Sags and Harmonics Filtering: A Case Study

Note on Medium-Power Vehicular Electric Generator Systems



Transverse Flux and Flux Reversal Permanent Magnet Generator Systems


Three-Phase Transverse Flux Machine: Magnetic Circuit Design

TFM: The dq Model and Steady State

Three-Phase FR-PM Generator: Magnetic and Electric Circuit Design

High Power Factor Vernier PM Generators



Linear Motion Alternators


LMA Principle of Operation

PM-LMA with Coil Mover

Multipole LMA with Coil Plus Iron Mover

PM-Mover LMAs

Tubular Homopolar PM Mover Single-Coil LMA

Flux Reversal LMA with Mover PM Flux Concentration

PM-LMAs with Iron Mover

Flux Reversal PM-LMA Tubular Configuration

Control of PM-LMAs

Progressive-Motion LMAs for Maglevs with Active Guideway



About the Author

Ion Boldea is a professor of electrical engineering at the University Politehnica Timisoara, Romania. A life fellow of the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), Professor Boldea has worked, published, lectured, and consulted extensively on the theory, design, and control of linear and rotary electric motors and generators for more than 40 years.

Subject Categories

BISAC Subject Codes/Headings:
TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING / Electronics / General
TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING / Power Resources / Electrical