Reducing power outage time to each customer is essential to the overall distribution reliability. This book provides the fundamentals of emergency operation using a graph-theoretic approach and exploration of the subsystem(s) that address the operational aspects of electrical fault occurrence to determine possible feeder reconfiguration. The localization of a faulted segment within a feeder involves remote-controlled normally open (NO) and normally closed (NC) switches through supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) between radially energized, interconnected feeders. Topics cover: (1) Data extraction from geographic information systems (GIS), (2) Graph modeling of distribution feeders, (3) Programming for backward/forward sweeping unbalanced power flow, (4) Short circuit analysis and fault localization, (5) Fault isolation, temporary and full service restoration, (6) Outage management and crew coordination, (7) Trouble call tickets and escalation to search for fault, and (8) Emerging subject of distribution management systems (DMS).
•Novel and practical textbook that will help to understand distribution operation in graph theory
•Show how to convert GIS coordinate datasets to graph and how to troubleshoot the geometry errors
•Explain how to troubleshoot power flow divergence due to the bad metering datasets and allocation factor (AF) for each load within primary and secondary networks
•Similar platform as DMS environment, but the graduate students have their hands-on experience to implement the applications in the MATLAB environment
•Detailed modeling in graph theory of distribution feeders and possible reconfiguration to locate power outage
Table of Contents
Preface. Acknowledgment. Glossary, Acronyms. Part 1 Network Communication Architectures. Interaction Between Entities. Part II Operational Data Modeling and Preparation. Distribution System Topology. Geospatial Data Importation to SCADA System. Available Metering Sources Within Distribution Networks. Part III Computerized Network Applications. Unbalanced Three-Phase Distribution Power Flow. Crew Dispatch Management. Fault Identification Based on Segment Localization. Isolation of Faulted Segment and Service Restoration. Trouble Call Tickets Issued by Customers. Creation of Switching Procedures. Harnessing the Outage Information. Part IV Troubleshooting the Operational Errors. Event Escalation Based on Incomplete Information. Part V Emergin Development. How the New Additions Can Change the Game.
Chee-Wooi Ten is currently an associate professor of electrical and computer Engineering at Michigan Technological University. He received his BSEE and MSEE degrees from Iowa State University, Ames, in 1999 and 2001, respectively, and later received a Ph.D. degree (in 2009) from the University College Dublin (UCD), National University of Ireland.
Professor Ten was a power-application engineer working in project development for EMS/DMS with Siemens Energy Management and Information System (SEMIS) in Singapore from 2002 to 2006 when the idea of this book came about, to help software and power-system engineers working in the distribution dispatching center. His primary research interests are modeling for interdependent critical cyberinfrastructures and SCADA automation applications for a power grid. He is a senior member of the IEEE. He is an active reviewer for IEEE PES transactions and has been a member of the IEEE PES Computer and Analytical Method for Cybersecurity Task Force. Dr. Ten is currently serving as an editor for IEEE Transactions on Smart Grid, and for the Elsevier Journal Sustainable Energy, Grids and Networks (SEGAN).
Yachen Tang received a Ph.D. degree in electrical and computer engineering at Michigan Technological University in 2018. He earned a BS degree in telecommunication engineering from Jilin University, China, in 2011, and a MS degree in computer engineering from Michigan Technological University, Houghton, in 2014.He is currently with Global Energy Interconnection Research Institute (GEIRI) North America in San Jose.
Dr. Tang was previously an intern with Henan Provincial Computer Research Institute for the project entitled "Testing and Processing System for Network Image of Yellow River," from July 2011 to January 2012. He holds a patent on a program for inputting Chinese characters. Since his doctorate program at Michigan Tech, he has been active in reviewing technical articles for the IEEE PES and IET Generation, Transmission & Distribution transactions journals. His research interests include power grid cybersecurity, which spans from modeling of anomalies to interference of inconsistent data related to an electrical distribution system. His research interests also include data mining and analysis, and machine learning. In particular, his contribution to this book involves graph theory establishment on the feeders and possible reconfiguration. That fresh view offers a new perception of topology in data structures where the energization states for each element can be affected during power outages for an inference of the root cause.
"Electric Power: Distribution Emergency Operation is of paramount importance for electrical-distribution engineers preparing measures for emergency operation of distribution grids. The book is also suited for graduated students for follow-up guidance in managing distribution networks under emergency operation. It is a valuable tool for teachers instructing about engineering in disasters and emergencies, researchers, practicing professionals, and advanced students needing to understand and master the operation of power-distribution systems following natural or man-made disasters."
—IEEE Industrial Electronics Magazine, March 2019 Issue
"This book is an excellent introduction to the sophisticated and vibrant subject of electric power distribution. It provides an elegant and rigorous abstraction of the cyber and physical layers of a smart distribution network through a unique graph-theoretical approach. The open-source MATLAB scripts make the algorithms highly accessible for both the power system professionals and university students and will inspire them to develop advanced distribution system functions of their own. This book is a delight for the inquisitive mind and opens up a rich field for those who are interested in power distribution resilience, reliability and cybersecurity. I recommend it highly."
— Peng Zhang, University of Connecticut, USA
"This book addresses interesting and timely topics, which have not been comprehensively treated in a single textbook. It merges traditional mathematical methods for power distribution system analysis and advanced tools for managing geographical dispersed energy resources for solving real case operation problems, which, in my own opinion, represents an enabling paradigm for managing modern power networks."
— Alfredo Vaccaro, University of Sannio, Italy
"As power distribution networks become increasingly more complex, it is important to start educating the next generation of distribution engineers in both current and future operational challenges in these networks, going past traditional fault analysis and addressing issues resulting from natural disasters as well as security issues exposed by the expanding communication infrastructure. Electric Power: Distribution Emergency Operation provides an accessible and thorough introduction to how we can achieve resilience under the current and future state of distribution network modeling and operation, providing practical and clear examples in MATLAB that are easy for readers to follow. Readers will learn how to translate theory to practice, which is especially important when working with real-world datasets."
— Kyri Baker, University of Colorado Boulder, USA
"This is a very timely publication and one that the industry has needed for many years. Like Chee-Wooi Ten, I once found myself starting in the industry and not able to find texts that covered essential topics in Distribution Emergency Operations. If I had taken a course based upon this book when I started working in the emerging area of distribution management systems, it would have saved me many hours of frustration.
I am particularly excited to see topics such as GIS modeling of distribution systems, outage management, switching management, and fault isolation and restoration get rigorous treatment in a graduate level text.
Chee-Wooi Ten’s mixture of academic rigor and pragmatic industry background is combined in this text to create what should be essential coursework for any student interested in a career working in electric distribution.
The examples and mini-projects spread throughout the course look excellent and are based upon real world problems. The introduction to the application of graph theory to distribution systems operations formalizes some of the commonly used techniques in modern day distribution management systems. There are practical discussions interspersed throughout the text that explain the key systems involved in Distribution Emergency Operations such as SCADA, AMI, MDMS and GIS provide great background for any student using the text that will help establish a foundation for working with utilities and vendors in the industry."
— Terry Nielsen, GridBright, Inc.
"The astounding pace at which energy infrastructures now experience including energy resource diversification, digitalization, and aging means that critical functioning electrical grids face greater and more frequent risk of intrusion and/or interruption. Moreover, extreme weather events have the potential to affect the performance of the power distribution networks, and the frequency and severity of such events are expected to increase as a consequence of the grid aging and climate change. This book has the best timing and content to address the challenges of resilient electric grid operation and outage management. Authors presented a comprehensive corollary of basic knowledge and practical issues in different chapters of the book."
— Reza Arghandeh, Western Norway University of Applied Sciences, Norway
"With the rising interest in power system resilience, understanding and handling faults, interruptions and equipment failures become of critical importance. At the level of distribution systems, where such emergencies affect directly end-customers’ quality of lives, production processes, transportation and many more, the matter of managing such grid events has evident and measurable practical value in an actual socioeconomic sense. To this end, the book "Distribution Emergency Operation" can only be described as current and of clearly targeted technical content. Building on basic distribution system knowledge, it assists the reader to formulate the most common models for the system and emergency events, as also the corrective control actions and measures in a set-up that it is both practical and carefully engineered for efficiency and effectiveness. Many pieces of relevant code are offered, which, although crucial to these operations and some of them relatively trivial, have never been gathered in one textbook. In this sense, the Authors have put together not only a Power Systems Engineering student’s coursebook, but also a Distribution Network Operator’s operating handbook. Starting with a brief review of current industry practices and applications, the book then defines the basic distribution system representation forms, moves on to describe how a grid is understood as a graph by processing algorithms, links the aforementioned representations to geospatial mapping, before analyzing the methodologies of unbalanced power flow, fault identification and corrective measures in face of fault and interruption events. The involvement of customers and maintenance personnel in handling distribution system emergencies is concluding this work, hinting towards the value of smart metering infrastructure for the modern and future grid development. The proposed mini projects throughout all chapters, although seemingly student-oriented may also serve as practice for professionals who are getting introduced to this specific topic.
One should be accustomed to basic power system characteristics, electrical engineering fundamentals, control principles and architectures, and power quality matters, before addressing this read. Although suitable for both students and professionals interested in monitoring, handling and correcting faults at electrical distribution systems, the book is aimed more to the professional practitioner as also the system operator mostly at the design level."
— Panayiotis (Panos) Moutis, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, USA
"Electric Power: Distribution Emergency Operation provides timely publication that has been critically needed for industry and education for many years. The authors traverse several disciplines to bring together the most fundamental and useful technical principles for understanding distribution systems and their operations under various scenarios. This is the first time that all this cutting-edge research has been accumulated in a textbook form. The comprehensive materials are organized in a graph theory-based framework and demonstrate in open-source MATLAB codes. It will significantly benefit the engineers and students to grasp the knowledge. It deserves a place in the library of every university and college where electric power systems is taught."
—Yunhe Hou, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong SAR, China
"Electric Power: Distribution Emergency Operation constitutes both a text book for students and a definitive reference for researchers and practitioners. It spans foundational material on graph theory and analysis of power distribution networks and faults, to industry practices in architecture and operation of distribution management systems. The book is replete with examples, algorithms and code snippets of a tutorial nature, making it feasible for a student to master the concepts independently. The authors possess considerable combined industry experience, through both practice and consulting, and their advanced knowledge is evident in this up to date, comprehensive, eminently readable and authoritative text."
—Joydeep Mitra, Michigan State University, USA
"This book offers a unique practical view into the operation of distribution systems. Authors’ extensive practical knowledge is well-presented as a great educational source for every power system engineer and educator."
— Javad Mohammadi, Carnegie Mellon University, Pennsylvania, USA
"This book is very useful for field engineers who work on distribution systems as well as for operators who monitor and control the distribution management system at Power System Control Centre. In addition, this textbook can help to enrich students and professionals who want to know more about electric distribution systems related to SCADA, GIS, AMI, MDMS, fault identification, fault isolation, supply restoration and outage management. The authors deliver the subject matters in the simplest possible way while at the same time provide many practical examples and MATLAB scripts to illustrate their messages and concepts. Chee-Wooi wrote this book out of his love for his work. He wanted to share his experience he gathered as an engineer with Power Automation, a joint venture between Siemens and Singapore Power and later as a professor who has taught electric power distribution courses in USA."
— H B Gooi, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore
"The book is a highly valuable addition to the existing literature on power distribution systems. It covers important, cutting-edge topics on contemporary power distribution. The book can be used as a textbook for high-level graduate courses or a reference for industry practitioners."
— Lingfeng Wang, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, USA
"I had the pleasure of meeting Chee-Wooi during his sabbatical at Carnegie Mellon and I have had a chance to have several interesting discussions. I learned a great deal about topology and its complexity in electrical distribution systems and how dynamic they can be. I was surprised to learn how ad-hoc the process of reconfiguration after a fault due to a single event is. I believe there are a large number of opportunities for innovation in distribution systems. Unfortunately, one of the major inhibitors is a lack of knowledge understanding of how distribution systems work. I believe the trend of deploying new sensors across distribution networks will continue and that the transformation to a fully automated is underway. This book is of strategic importance as it is the finest textbook discussing reconfiguration in distribution systems and being at the same time accessible to non-domain experts. This is the book that every new generation of students interested in understanding how to model, analyze and design resilient distribution energy systems should have on their bookshelf. The book is clearly, accessible and incredibly well written. I highly recommend having one in your bookshelf."
—Bruno Sinopoli, Carnegie Mellon University, USA