Electric Safety : Practice and Standards book cover
1st Edition

Electric Safety
Practice and Standards

ISBN 9781138073999
Published March 30, 2017 by CRC Press
464 Pages 339 B/W Illustrations

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Book Description

Electric power engineering education traditionally covers safety of the power equipment and systems. Little attention, if any, is given to the safety of people. When they reach professional status, most power engineers are not familiar with electric safety issues such as practices governing site works or grounding techniques of dwellings, hospitals, and factories. Designed for both electrical engineering student and practicing power engineers, Electric Safety: Practice and Standards provides the knowledge and analysis they need to be well versed in electric safety.


  • Includes techniques to assess safety practices at worksites and provides remedies to correct safety problems
  • Addresses the elusive stray voltage problem and provides techniques to mitigate its impact in dwellings as well as in sensitive installations such as hospitals and dairy farms
  • Provides approximate, yet accurate, analyses and techniques that can be used to assess electric safety without the need for extensive computation or elaborate programs
  • Includes several case studies from real events and examples demonstrating how variations in electric safety procedure implementation influence safety levels

Based on the authors’ years of experience as an expert witness and electric safety training instructor, the book covers the analysis of electric safety practices as well as the interpretations of various safety codes. Including homework problems and a solutions manual, this book is a comprehensive guide to recognize and eliminate hazards of electric shocks for professionals working on electric power equipment, as well as people such as the general public in commonly used places, farms workers and animals, and hospital patients.

Table of Contents

Fundamentals of Electricity
Electric Fields
Magnetic Fields
Alternating Current
Three-Phase Systems

Basic Components of an Electric Grid
Power Lines

Physiological Effects of Electricity
Classifications of Electric Shocks
Factors Determining the Severity of Electric Shocks
Symptoms and Treatments of Electric Shock

Ground Resistance
Ground Resistance of Objects
Soil Resistivity
Soil Treatment
Factors Affecting Ground Resistance

General Hazards of Electricity
Touch Potential
Step Potential

Induced Voltage due to Electric Field
Equipotential Surface
Induced Voltage on a Conductor without Field Distortion
Electric Field Distortion due to Earth
Induced Voltage due to Multiple Energized Phases
Effect of Line Configuration on Induced Voltage
Induced Voltage due to Energized Cables

Induced Voltage due to Magnetic Field
Flux and Flux Linkage
Induced Voltage due to Single Energized Conductor
Induced Voltage due to Multiple Energized Conductors
Induced Voltage due to Electric and Magnetic Fields

De-energized Line Work
Definition of a De-energized Conductor
Methods of Detecting Induced Voltage
Main Protection Techniques
Grounding System
Grounding Methods
Case Studies

Live-Line Work
Hot Stick Method
Insulate and Isolate Method
Bare-Hand Method
Case Study

Arc Flash
Arc Flash Phases
Assessment of Arc Flash
Calculation of Arc Flash Protection Boundary
Personal Protection Equipment
Approach Boundaries

Atmospheric Discharge
Characteristics of Lightning Discharge
Protection from Lightning Strikes
Safe Distance from Lightning Protection Devices

Stray and Contact Voltages
Neutral versus Ground
Service Transformer
Voltage on Neutral Conductor
Stray Voltage
Detection of Stray Voltage
Mitigation of Stray Voltage
Mitigation of Stray Voltage in Hospitals
Contact and Structure Voltages
Neutral Deterioration
World’s Residential Grounding Practices

Electric Safety under Power Lines
Electric Field Calculation
Electric Field near Objects
Electric Field Profile under Power Lines
Allowable Limits for Electric Fields
Minimum Vertical Clearance Methods
Measurement of Electric Field Strength
Mitigation of Electric Field

Coupling between Power Lines and Pipelines, Railroads, and Telecommunication Cables
Electric Field Coupling
Magnetic Field Coupling
Mitigation of Electromagnetic Coupling
Ground Current

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"... an excellent resource and supplement to any accident prevention training program and for a variety of electrical workers including safety specialists, engineers, linemen, substation technicians, electricians, and wind and solar technicians. I will purchase additional copies so that student libraries at each of our campuses will have it on the shelf for both staff and student reference. My compliments to Prof. El-Sharkawi for his efforts in bringing to the power industry a valuable reference book."
—Alan Drew, from IEEE Power & Energy Magazine, September/October 2015

"This book can be very helpful for not only the power engineer looking to improve communication and understanding to field workers but could be useful to plant engineers who may have many of the issues described in the book. Solutions for solving many common problems found in the field can be gained from the knowledge in this book. In addition to presenting an excellent text on electrical safety, the several real-life case studies presented and the numerous examples that show the implementation of the electric safety procedures make this a gem of a book."
IEEE Electrical Insulation Magazine, November/December 2014

"… very well written … well illustrated and covers a wealth of valuable subjects … of value to final year third level students undertaking many courses in electrical and electronic engineering. It will also be of value for students undertaking a taught post-graduate course that includes those areas which feature electrical safety. … a good introductory resource for those undertaking research in the area, including practitioners of electrical engineering, in general."
—Prof. J M Blackledge, Dublin Institute of Technology, Ireland

"… will be of good use to an engineering student or new engineer learning about electric system safety as well as the practicing engineer. … provides the basics for understanding electrical system safety in commercial, industrial and utility applications. The book moves quickly through the concepts with sufficient examples to understand and apply the math, formulas and principles used."
—Max Emrick, Senior Member IEEE, Engineering Manager, Protection Automation and Controls