Electrical Contacts: Principles and Applications, Second Edition, 2nd Edition (e-Book) book cover

Electrical Contacts

Principles and Applications, Second Edition, 2nd Edition

Edited by Paul G. Slade

CRC Press

1,311 pages | 881 B/W Illus.

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Description

Covering the theory, application, and testing of contact materials, Electrical Contacts: Principles and Applications, Second Edition introduces a thorough discussion on making electric contact and contact interface conduction; presents a general outline of, and measurement techniques for, important corrosion mechanisms; considers the results of contact wear when plug-in connections are made and broken; investigates the effect of thin noble metal plating on electronic connections; and relates crucial considerations for making high- and low-power contact joints. It examines contact use in switching devices, including the interruption of AC and DC circuits with currents in the range 10mA to 100kA and circuits up to 1000V, and describes arc formation between open contacts and between opening contacts. Arcing effects on contacts such as erosion, welding, and contamination are also addressed.

Containing nearly 3,000 references, tables, equations, figures, drawings, and photographs, the bookprovides practical examples encompassing everything from electronic circuits to high power circuits, or microamperes to mega amperes. The new edition:

  • Reflects the latest advances in electrical contact science and technology
  • Examines current research on contact corrosion, materials, and switching
  • Includes updates and revisions in each chapter, as well as up-to-date references and new figures and examples throughout
  • Delivers three new chapters on the effects of dust contamination, electronic sensing for switching systems, and contact phenomena for micro-electronic systems (MEMS) applications

With contributions from recognized experts in the field, Electrical Contacts: Principles and Applications, Second Edition assists practicing scientists and engineers in the prevention of costly system failures, as well as offers a comprehensive introduction to the subject for technology graduate students, by expanding their knowledge of electrical contact phenomena.

Reviews

"This is the book you want to own if you design or test electrical connectors or develop devices using switching or arcing contacts. … It provides the most comprehensive coverage of electrical contact theory, material selection, and switch design of any book on the market today, covering almost all electrical contacts below 1,000 V and some vacuum interrupter technology operating above 1,000 V."

—John J. Shea, Eaton Corporation, Moon Township, Pennsylvania, USA, from IEEE Electrical Insulation Magazine, May/June 2015

Table of Contents

Preface to the Second Edition

Preface to the First Edition

Introduction

Editor

Contributors

Contact Interface Conduction

Electrical Contact Resistance: Fundamental Principles

Roland S. Timsit

Introduction

Electrical Constriction Resistance

Effect of Surface Films on Constriction and Contact Resistance

Temperature of an Electrically Heated a-Spot

Mechanics of a-Spot Formation

Breakdown of Classical Electrical Contact Theory in Small Contact Spots

Constriction Resistance at High Frequencies

Summary

Acknowledgements

References

Introduction to Contact Tarnishing and Corrosion

Paul G. Slade

Introduction

Corrosion Rates

Corrosion Gases

Types of Corrosion

Gas Concentrations in the Atmosphere

Measurements

Mixed Flow Gas Laboratory Testing

Electronic Connectors

Power Connectors

Other Considerations

Acknowledgements

References

Gas Corrosion

William H. Abbott and Paul G. Slade

Introduction

The Field Environments for Electrical Contacts

Laboratory Accelerated Testing

Lubrication and Inhibition of Corrosion

Acknowledgement

References

Effect of Dust Contamination on Electrical Contacts

Ji Gao Zhang

Introduction

Dusty Environment and Dust Composition

The Characteristics of Dust Particles

Application Conditions in Dusty Environment

Theoretical Analysis of Connector Contact Failure due to the Dust

Future Work

References

Nonarcing Contacts

Power Connectors

Milenko Braunovic

Introduction

Types of Power Connectors

Properties of Conductor and Connector Materials

Parameters Affecting Performance of Power Connections

Palliative Measures

Connector Degradation

Prognostic Models

Shape-Memory Alloys (SMA)

Metal Foam Materials

Installation of Power Connections

Accelerated Current-Cycling Tests (Standards)

References

Low-Power Commercial, Automotive, and Appliance Connections

Anthony Lee and George Drew

Introduction

Connectors

Contact Terminals

Degradation of Connector Contact

Automotive Connector Contacts

Summary

References

Tribology of Electronic Connectors: Contact Sliding Wear, Fretting, and Lubrication

Roland S. Timsit and Morton Antler

Introduction

Sliding Wear

Fretting

Lubrication

References

Materials, Coatings, and Platings

Morton Antler and Paul G. Slade

Introduction

Metallic Finishes

Properties Related to Porosity

Metallurgical and Structural Properties

Physical and Mechanical Properties

Acknowledgement

References

The Electric Arc and Switching Device Technology

The Arc and Interruption

Paul G. Slade

Introduction

The Fourth State of Matter

Establishing an Arc

The Formation of the Electric Arc

The Arc in Air at Atmospheric Pressure

The Arc in Vacuum

Arc Interruption

Acknowledgements

References

The Consequences of Arcing

Paul G. Slade

Introduction

Arcing Time

Arc Erosion of Electrical Contacts

Blow-Off Force

Contact Welding

Changes in the Contact Surface as a Result of Arcing

Acknowledgements

References

Reed Switches

Kunio Hinohara

Principles and Design of the Reed Switch

Recommended Contact Plating

Contact Surface Degradation and Countermeasures

Applications of Reed Switches

References

Low Current and High Frequency Miniature Switches: Microelectromechanical Systems (MEMS) Metal Contact Switches

Benjamin F. Toler, Ronald A. Coutu, Jr., and John W. McBride

Introduction

Micro-Contact Resistance Modeling

Contact Materials for Performance and Reliability

Failure Modes and Reliability

Conclusion

References

Low Current Switching

John W. McBride

Introduction and Device Classification

Device Types

Design Parameters for Static Switching Contacts

Mechanical Design Parameters

The Measurement of Contact Wear and Contact Dynamics

Electrical Characteristics of Low-Current Switching Devices at Opening

Electrical Characteristics of Low-Current Switching Devices at Closure

Summary

Acknowledgements

References

Medium to High Current Switching: Low Voltage Contractors and Circuit Breakers, and Vacuum Interrupters

Manfred Lindmayer

General Aspects of Switching in Air

Contacts for Switching in Air

Low-Voltage Contactors

Low-Voltage Circuit-Breakers and Miniature Circuit-Breakers

Simulations of Low-Voltage Switching Devices

Vacuum Interrupters

References

Arc Faults and Electrical Safety

John J. Shea

Introduction

Arc Fault Circuit Interrupters (AFCIs)

Arcing Faults

Glowing Connections

Arcing Fault Properties

Other Types of Arcing Faults

Conclusions

References

Arcing Contact Materials

Arcing Contact Materials

Gerald J. Witter

Introduction

Silver Metal Oxides

Silver Refractory Metals

Vacuum Interrupter Materials

Tungsten Contacts

Non-Noble Silver Alloys

Silver-Nickel Contact Materials

Silver Alloys and Noble Metals

Silver-Graphite Contact Materials

Conclusion

Acknowledgements

References

Contact Design and Attachment

Gerald J. Witter and Guenther Horn

Introduction

Staked Contact Assembly Designs

Welded Contact Assembly Designs

Brazed Contact Assembly Designs

Clad Metals, Inlay, and Edge Lay

Contact Alloys for Non-Arcing Separable Contacts

Acknowledgements

References

Electrical Contact Material Testing Design and Measurement

Gerald J. Witter and Werner Rieder

Objectives

Device Testing and Model Switch Testing

Electrical Contact Testing Variables

Electrical Testing Result Types and Measurement Methods

References

Arc Interactions with Contaminants

Gerald J. Witter and Werner Rieder

Introduction

Organic Contamination and Activation

Mineral Particulate Contamination of Arcing Contacts

Silicone Contamination of Arcing Contacts

Lubricants with Refractory Fillers

Oxidation of Contact Materials

Resistance Effects from Long Arcs

Acknowledgements

References

Sliding Electrical Contacts

Sliding Electrical Contacts (Graphitic Type Lubrication)

Kiochiro Sawa and Erle I. Shobert II

Introduction

Mechanical Aspects

Chemical Aspects

Electrical Effects

Thermal Effects

Brush Wear

Brush Materials and Abrasion

Summary

References

Illustrative Modern Brush Applications

Wilferd E. Yohe and William A. Nystrom

Introduction

Brush Materials

Brush Applications

Sliding Contacts for Instrumentation and Control

Glenn Dorsey and Jax Glossbrenner

Introduction

Sliding Contact—The Micro Perspective

Electrical Performance

Micro-Environment of Contact Region

Macro Sliding Contact

Materials for Sliding Contacts

Friction and Wear Characteristics

Contact Parameters and Sliding-Contact Assemblies

Future

Summary

Acknowledgements

References

Metal Fiber Brushes

Glenn Dorsey and Doris Kuhlmann-Wilsdorf

Introduction

Sliding Wear of Multi-Fiber Brushes

Surface Films, Friction, and Materials Properties

Electrical Contact

Brush Dynamics

Future

Summary

Acknowledgements

References

Contact Data

Useful Electric Contact Information

Paul G. Slade

Introduction

Notes to the Tables

References

Author Index

Subject Index

About the Editor

Paul G. Slade began his studies in the fascinating world of electrical contacts as a graduate student at the University of Wales, Cardiff, UK in the mid-1960s. Since that time, he has been involved with electrical contacts both as a research scientist and as a developer of switching components. Currently retired, he ended his five decades of experience in electrical contact research first at the Westinghouse R &D Center, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA, and then at the Eaton Corporation’s Vacuum Interrupter Factory, Horseheads, New York, USA.

Subject Categories

BISAC Subject Codes/Headings:
TEC007000
TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING / Electrical
TEC008000
TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING / Electronics / General
TEC008010
TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING / Electronics / Circuits / General
TEC009070
TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING / Mechanical