Electrical Impedance: Principles, Measurement, and Applications, 1st Edition (Paperback) book cover

Electrical Impedance

Principles, Measurement, and Applications, 1st Edition

By Luca Callegaro

CRC Press

308 pages | 191 B/W Illus.

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Electrical Impedance: Principles, Measurement, and Applications provides a modern and much-needed overview of electrical impedance measurement science and its application in metrology, sensor reading, device and material characterizations. It presents up-to-date coverage of the theory, practical methods, and modeling. The author covers the main impedance measurement techniques, stressing their practical application. The book includes a large set of measurement setup schematics, and diagrams and photos of standards and devices. It also offers an extensive list of references to both historical and recent papers on devices, methods, and traceability issues.

  • Reviews the main definitions of the quantities related to impedance, some theorems of particular interest, the issue of impedance representation, and introduces the problem of impedance definition
  • Lists devices, appliances, circuits, and instruments employed as building blocks of impedance measurement setups
  • Classifies the main impedance measurement methods, including details on their implementation when a specific impedance definition is chosen
  • Discusses the increasing use of mixed-signal electronics in impedance measurement setups
  • Covers applications including details on the measurement of electromagnetic properties of materials
  • Introduces impedance metrology, including artifact impedance standards, and the realization and reproduction of SI impedance units


"This book is very well written and provides an excellent source for the engineer or metrologist who needs to make impedance measurements on materials or devices. It provides a good background on all the commonly used methods and contains essential practical methods to ensure accurate measurements. Having all this information in one book is very convenient for the experimentalist. If you perform impedance-based measurements, this book is well worth owning."

IEEE Electrical Insulation Magazine, November/December 2013

Table of Contents


Two-terminal circuit elements

Resistors, capacitors, inductors


Impedance and admittance

Power and RMS value

Beyond two-terminal networks

Impedance and linear response theory

Impedance as an electromagnetic quantity

The graphical representation of electrical impedance

Density quantities

Frequency ranges

Impedance definitions

n-terminal definitions

n-terminal-pair definitions

Change of definition

Cable effects

Devices and appliances of interest in impedance measurement


Voltage and current measurement

Voltage and current ratio devices

Cables and connectors


Common practice methods

I-V method

Two-voltage methods

Three-voltage method


Transformer bridges

Beyond 2T definition of impedance standards

The LCR meter


Resonance methods

Mutual inductance measured as self-inductance

Network analysis

Going digital


Direct digital synthesis

Digital signal analysis

Digital impedance bridges

Sampling impedance meters

Some applications of impedance measurement

Measurement of electromagnetic properties of materials

Sensor reading

Semiconductor device characterization

Biological measurements

Metrology: traceability and uncertainty



Metrology: standards

Impedance standards

Inductance standards

Capacitance standards

Synthesized impedance standards

Cryogenic standards

Standards of phase angle, time constant, etc

Open and short standards

High-frequency and microwave standards

Metrology: realization and reproduction

The International System of Units

Realization of impedance units

Reproduction of the ohm

Counting electrons

The future of SI



Harmonic electromagnetic fields

CODATA recommended values

Reactance Chart




About the Series

Series in Sensors

Learn more…

Subject Categories

BISAC Subject Codes/Headings:
SCIENCE / Physics
TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING / Electronics / Circuits / General