Electrical Power Transmission and Distribution: Aging and Life Extension Techniques, 1st Edition (Hardback) book cover

Electrical Power Transmission and Distribution

Aging and Life Extension Techniques, 1st Edition

By Bella H. Chudnovsky

CRC Press

428 pages | 36 Color Illus. | 90 B/W Illus.

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pub: 2012-11-16
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Electrical distribution and transmission systems are complex combinations of various conductive and insulating materials. When exposed to atmospheric corrosive gases, contaminants, extreme temperatures, vibrations, and other internal and external impacts, these systems deteriorate, and sooner or later their ability to function properly is destroyed. Electrical Power Transmission and Distribution: Aging and Life Extension Techniques offers practical guidance on ways to slow down the aging of these electrical systems, improve their performance, and extend their life.

Recognize the Signs of Aging in Equipment—and Learn How to Slow It

A reference manual for engineering, maintenance, and training personnel, this book analyzes the factors that cause materials to deteriorate and explains what you can do to reduce the impact of these factors. In one volume, it brings together extensive information previously scattered among manufacturers’ documentation, journal papers, conference proceedings, and general books on plating, lubrication, insulation, and other areas.

  • Shows you how to identify the signs of equipment aging
  • Helps you understand the causes of equipment deterioration
  • Suggests practical techniques for protecting electrical apparatus from deterioration and damage
  • Supplies information that can be used to develop manuals on proper maintenance procedures and choice of materials
  • Provides numerous examples from industry

This book combines research and engineering material with maintenance recommendations given in layperson’s terms, making it useful for readers from a range of backgrounds. In particular, it is a valuable resource for personnel responsible for the utilization, operation, and maintenance of electrical transmission and distribution equipment at power plants and industrial facilities.


"The focus of this unique reference book is four critical areas in the manufacturing of power distribution components. These areas are plating, lubrication, insulator failure, and maintenance. … The many SEM images, x-ray studies, photos, and tabular data make for a very convenient reference source for diagnosing plating problems. … Examples often help to drive home a point, and many case studies illustrating the various failure modes described throughout the book are included. These could prove to be an invaluable source of information when trying to diagnose unknown field failures. … Engineers involved with failure analysis or lifetime reliability predictions of power-distribution components will find this book a very useful and practical source of information, especially regarding plating failures. Extensive information on critical plating materials and processes used in the industry, which directly affect the reliability and lifetime of power-distribution components, is presented. The book could prompt ideas for failure investigations involving plating or lubrication, and it offers suggestions for improving the reliability and increasing the lifetime of power-distribution components."

—John J. Shea, IEEE Electrical Insulation Magazine, May/June 2013, Vol. 29, No. 3

Table of Contents

Plating of Electrical Equipment

Electroplating for Contact Applications

Electroless Plating

Electroless Nickel as a Plating Alternative for Electrical Apparatus in Corrosive Atmosphere

Zinc Electroplating and Galvanization

Metal Whiskers on Plating (Noncorrosive Phenomenon)

Plating on Aluminum

Plating Standards and Glossary

Plating Glossary


Detrimental Processes and Aging of Plating

Issues of Tin Plating Performance

Use of Underplating for Plating Longevity

Applications of Ni Underplating

Galvanic Corrosion: Connections Made of Dissimilar Metals

Other Detrimental Processes Affecting Plating Performance


Electrical Equipment in a Corrosive Environment

Corrosion Factors in the Atmosphere

Effect of Environment on Bare Metals

Atmospheric Corrosion of Silver Plating

Effect of Silver Corrosion on Contact Resistance

Silver Whiskers: A Mysterious and Dangerous Phenomenon

Tin Plating Corrosion

Zinc Plating Corrosion and Galvanized Steel

Means of Corrosion Protection of Electrical Equipment

Means of Environmental Control for Corrosion Protection

Corrosion Glossary


Lubrication of Distribution Electrical Equipment

Lubrication Primer

Incompatibility of Lubricants

Lubricant Working Temperature Limits and Storage

Lubrication of Electrical Contacts

Practical Lubrication

Lubrication Failure Modes

Lubrication Failures of Electrical Equipment: Case Studies

Informational Sources for Lubricants

Lubrication Glossary


Insulation, Coatings, and Adhesives in Transmission and Distribution Electrical Equipment

Insulating Materials in Power Equipment

Aging of Insulating Materials Due to Electrical Stress

Environmental Aging of Insulating Materials

HV Bushings in Transformers and CBs

Power Cable Insulation

Other Insulating Media

Powder Coating and Paint for Electrical Enclosures

Electrical Insulation Standards and Glossary


Electrical Equipment Life Expectancy, Aging, and Failures

Life Expectancy for Distribution and Transmission Equipment

Signatures of the Aging of Electrical Equipment in Nuclear, Industrial, and Residential Environments

Failure Modes and Failure Rates of Aging Electrical Equipment

Failure Causes and Rates of Electrical Equipment Based on CIGRÉ Survey

Failure Cases of High-Voltage Electrical Equipment

Failure Cases of Low- and Medium-Voltage Electrical Equipment


Physical Conditions of Electrical Equipment: Testing, Monitoring, and Diagnostics

Parameters Defining the Physical Conditions of Electrical Equipment

Techniques for Testing Physical Conditions of MV Cables

Testing Techniques to Assess Insulation Conditions of HV/MV Switchgear, CB, and Transformers

Online Monitoring Techniques for PD of MV Substation, Switchgear, and Cables

Testing of HV Bushing Conditions

Thermal Conditions of Electrical Equipment and Temperature Monitoring

Physical Conditions of Transmission Electrical Equipment: Online Monitoring Techniques


Electrical Equipment Maintenance and Life Extension Techniques

Maintenance Strategies

Maintenance as a Life Extension Technique

CBM Methodology and Life Management

Maintenance of Electrical Equipment Exposed to Corrosion and Water



About the Author

Bella Helmer Chudnovsky earned her Ph.D. in applied physics at Rostov State University (RSU) in Russia. For the first 25 years, she worked as a scientist at the Institute of Physics at RSU and at the University of Cincinnati. During the last 12 years of her career, she worked as an R&D engineer for Schneider Electric-Square D Company, where her principal areas of activities were aimed at resolving multiple aging problems of power distribution equipment. She has published 40 papers in national and international technical journals and conference proceedings.

Subject Categories

BISAC Subject Codes/Headings:
SCIENCE / Energy
TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING / Environmental / General
TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING / Power Resources / Electrical