1st Edition

Electrical Power Transmission and Distribution Aging and Life Extension Techniques

By Bella H. Chudnovsky Copyright 2013
    428 Pages 36 Color & 90 B/W Illustrations
    by CRC Press

    411 Pages 36 Color & 90 B/W Illustrations
    by CRC Press

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    Electrical distribution and transmission systems are complex combinations of various conductive and insulating materials. When exposed to atmospheric corrosive gases, contaminants, extreme temperatures, vibrations, and other internal and external impacts, these systems deteriorate, and sooner or later their ability to function properly is destroyed. Electrical Power Transmission and Distribution: Aging and Life Extension Techniques offers practical guidance on ways to slow down the aging of these electrical systems, improve their performance, and extend their life.

    Recognize the Signs of Aging in Equipment—and Learn How to Slow It

    A reference manual for engineering, maintenance, and training personnel, this book analyzes the factors that cause materials to deteriorate and explains what you can do to reduce the impact of these factors. In one volume, it brings together extensive information previously scattered among manufacturers’ documentation, journal papers, conference proceedings, and general books on plating, lubrication, insulation, and other areas.

    • Shows you how to identify the signs of equipment aging
    • Helps you understand the causes of equipment deterioration
    • Suggests practical techniques for protecting electrical apparatus from deterioration and damage
    • Supplies information that can be used to develop manuals on proper maintenance procedures and choice of materials
    • Provides numerous examples from industry

    This book combines research and engineering material with maintenance recommendations given in layperson’s terms, making it useful for readers from a range of backgrounds. In particular, it is a valuable resource for personnel responsible for the utilization, operation, and maintenance of electrical transmission and distribution equipment at power plants and industrial facilities.

    Plating of Electrical Equipment
    Electroplating for Contact Applications
    Electroless Plating
    Electroless Nickel as a Plating Alternative for Electrical Apparatus in Corrosive Atmosphere
    Zinc Electroplating and Galvanization
    Metal Whiskers on Plating (Noncorrosive Phenomenon)
    Plating on Aluminum
    Plating Standards and Glossary
    Plating Glossary

    Detrimental Processes and Aging of Plating
    Issues of Tin Plating Performance
    Use of Underplating for Plating Longevity
    Applications of Ni Underplating
    Galvanic Corrosion: Connections Made of Dissimilar Metals
    Other Detrimental Processes Affecting Plating Performance

    Electrical Equipment in a Corrosive Environment
    Corrosion Factors in the Atmosphere
    Effect of Environment on Bare Metals
    Atmospheric Corrosion of Silver Plating
    Effect of Silver Corrosion on Contact Resistance
    Silver Whiskers: A Mysterious and Dangerous Phenomenon
    Tin Plating Corrosion
    Zinc Plating Corrosion and Galvanized Steel
    Means of Corrosion Protection of Electrical Equipment
    Means of Environmental Control for Corrosion Protection
    Corrosion Glossary

    Lubrication of Distribution Electrical Equipment
    Lubrication Primer
    Incompatibility of Lubricants
    Lubricant Working Temperature Limits and Storage
    Lubrication of Electrical Contacts
    Practical Lubrication
    Lubrication Failure Modes
    Lubrication Failures of Electrical Equipment: Case Studies
    Informational Sources for Lubricants
    Lubrication Glossary

    Insulation, Coatings, and Adhesives in Transmission and Distribution Electrical Equipment
    Insulating Materials in Power Equipment
    Aging of Insulating Materials Due to Electrical Stress
    Environmental Aging of Insulating Materials
    HV Bushings in Transformers and CBs
    Power Cable Insulation
    Other Insulating Media
    Powder Coating and Paint for Electrical Enclosures
    Electrical Insulation Standards and Glossary

    Electrical Equipment Life Expectancy, Aging, and Failures
    Life Expectancy for Distribution and Transmission Equipment
    Signatures of the Aging of Electrical Equipment in Nuclear, Industrial, and Residential Environments
    Failure Modes and Failure Rates of Aging Electrical Equipment
    Failure Causes and Rates of Electrical Equipment Based on CIGRÉ Survey
    Failure Cases of High-Voltage Electrical Equipment
    Failure Cases of Low- and Medium-Voltage Electrical Equipment

    Physical Conditions of Electrical Equipment: Testing, Monitoring, and Diagnostics
    Parameters Defining the Physical Conditions of Electrical Equipment
    Techniques for Testing Physical Conditions of MV Cables
    Testing Techniques to Assess Insulation Conditions of HV/MV Switchgear, CB, and Transformers
    Online Monitoring Techniques for PD of MV Substation, Switchgear, and Cables
    Testing of HV Bushing Conditions
    Thermal Conditions of Electrical Equipment and Temperature Monitoring
    Physical Conditions of Transmission Electrical Equipment: Online Monitoring Techniques

    Electrical Equipment Maintenance and Life Extension Techniques
    Maintenance Strategies
    Maintenance as a Life Extension Technique
    CBM Methodology and Life Management
    Maintenance of Electrical Equipment Exposed to Corrosion and Water



    Bella Helmer Chudnovsky earned her Ph.D. in applied physics at Rostov State University (RSU) in Russia. For the first 25 years, she worked as a scientist at the Institute of Physics at RSU and at the University of Cincinnati. During the last 12 years of her career, she worked as an R&D engineer for Schneider Electric-Square D Company, where her principal areas of activities were aimed at resolving multiple aging problems of power distribution equipment. She has published 40 papers in national and international technical journals and conference proceedings.

    "The focus of this unique reference book is four critical areas in the manufacturing of power distribution components. These areas are plating, lubrication, insulator failure, and maintenance. ... The many SEM images, x-ray studies, photos, and tabular data make for a very convenient reference source for diagnosing plating problems. ... Examples often help to drive home a point, and many case studies illustrating the various failure modes described throughout the book are included. These could prove to be an invaluable source of information when trying to diagnose unknown field failures. ... Engineers involved with failure analysis or lifetime reliability predictions of power-distribution components will find this book a very useful and practical source of information, especially regarding plating failures. Extensive information on critical plating materials and processes used in the industry, which directly affect the reliability and lifetime of power-distribution components, is presented. The book could prompt ideas for failure investigations involving plating or lubrication, and it offers suggestions for improving the reliability and increasing the lifetime of power-distribution components."
    —John J. Shea, IEEE Electrical Insulation Magazine, May/June 2013, Vol. 29, No. 3