1st Edition

Electrochemical Supercapacitors for Energy Storage and Delivery Fundamentals and Applications

By Aiping Yu, Victor Chabot, Jiujun Zhang Copyright 2013
    373 Pages 20 Color & 151 B/W Illustrations
    by CRC Press

    382 Pages 20 Color & 151 B/W Illustrations
    by CRC Press

    Although recognized as an important component of all energy storage and conversion technologies, electrochemical supercapacitators (ES) still face development challenges in order to reach their full potential. A thorough examination of development in the technology during the past decade, Electrochemical Supercapacitors for Energy Storage and Delivery: Fundamentals and Applications provides a comprehensive introduction to the ES from technical and practical aspects and crystallization of the technology, detailing the basics of ES as well as its components and characterization techniques.

    The book illuminates the practical aspects of understanding and applying the technology within the industry and provides sufficient technical detail of newer materials being developed by experts in the field which may surface in the future. The book discusses the technical challenges and the practical limitations and their associated parameters in ES technology. It also covers the structure and options for device packaging and materials choices such as electrode materials, electrolyte, current collector, and sealants based on comparison of available data.

    Supplying an in depth understanding of the components, design, and characterization of electrochemical supercapacitors, the book has wide-ranging appeal to industry experts and those new to the field. It can be used as a reference to apply to current work and a resource to foster ideas for new devices that will further the technology as it becomes a larger part of main stream energy storage.

    Fundamentals of Electric Capacitors
    Electric Charge, Electric Field, and Electric Potential and Their Implications for Capacitor Cell Voltage
    Capacitance Definition and Calculation
    Capacitor Charging and Recharging Processes
    Energy Storage in Capacitor
    Capacitor Containing Electrical Circuits and Corresponding Calculation
    Types and Structures of Capacitors

    Fundamentals of Electrochemical Double Layer Supercapacitors
    Electrode and Electrolyte Interfaces and Their Capacitances
    Electrode Potential and Double Layer Potential Windows Using Different Electrode Materials and Electrolytes
    Capacitance of Porous Carbon Materials
    Electrochemical Double Layer Supercapacitors
    Energy and Power Densities of Electrochemical Supercapacitors
    Supercapacitor Stacking
    Double Layer Supercapacitors versus Batteries
    Applications of Supercapacitors

    Fundamentals of Electrochemical Pseudocapacitors
    Electrochemical Pseudocapacitance of Electrode–Electrolyte Interface
    Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy and Equivalent Circuits
    Materials, Electrodes, and Cell Designs

    Components and Materials for Electrochemical Supercapacitors
    Anode and Cathode Structures and Materials
    Electrolyte Structures and Materials
    Separator Structures
    Current Collectors

    Electrochemical Supercapacitor Design, Fabrication, and Operation
    Design Considerations
    Single Cell Manufacturing
    Supercapacitor Stack Manufacturing and Construction
    Voltage Cell Balancing
    Cell Aging and Voltage Decay
    Self Discharging
    Patent Review
    Major Commercial ES Products

    Coupling with Batteries and Fuel Cells
    Coupling ES Systems with Other Energy Devices
    Hybrid Systems
    Supercapacitor Integration with Batteries
    Supercapacitor Integration with Fuel Cells
    System Modeling and Optimization
    Improving Dynamic Response and Transient Stability

    Characterization and Diagnosis Techniques for Electrochemical Supercapacitors
    Electrochemical Cell Design and Fabrication
    Cyclic Voltammetry (CV)
    Charging–Discharging Curve
    Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS)
    Physical Characterization of Supercapacitor Materials
    Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) Method

    Applications of Electrochemical Supercapacitors
    Power Electronics
    Memory Protection
    Battery Enhancement
    Portable Energy Sources
    Power Quality Improvement
    Adjustable Speed Drives (ASDs)
    High Power Sensors and Actuators
    Hybrid Electric Vehicles
    Renewable and Off-Peak Energy Storage
    Military and Aerospace Applications

    Perspectives and Challenges
    Market Challenges
    Electrode Material Challenges
    Electrolyte Innovations
    Development of Computational Tools
    Future Perspectives and Research Directions


    Aiping Yu is an assistant professor at the University of Waterloo in Canada. She earned her PhD from the University of California– Riverside. Her research interests are materials and modeling development for energy storage and conversion, photocatalysts, and nanocomposites. Dr. Yu has published over 35 papers in peer-reviewed journals such as Science and one book chapter relating to supercapacitors. She currently is the editorial member of the Nature: Scientific Reports. Her work has been featured by major media such as Nature: Nanotechnology, Photonics.com, and Azonano.com. Her patent for graphene nanomaterials has been licensed to a company in San Jose. Victor Chabot received his bachelor's degree in nanoengineering from the University of Waterloo and currently is pursuing his graduate degree in chemical engineering at the University of Waterloo. His research focuses on nanomaterial development for high energy density supercapacitors. Jiujun Zhang is a principal research officer and technical leader at the National Research Council of Canada’s Institute for Fuel Cell Innovation (NRC-IFCI), now the council's Energy, Mining, and Environment (NRC-EME) portfolio. Dr. Zhang earned a BS and MSc in electrochemistry from Peking University in 1982 and 1985, respectively, and a PhD in electrochemistry from Wuhan University in 1988. After completing his doctorate, he took a position as an associate professor at the Huazhong Normal University for 2 years. Starting in 1990, he carried out three terms of postdoctoral research at the California Institute of Technology, York University, and the University of British Columbia. Dr. Zhang has over 28 years of research and development experience in theoretical and applied electrochemistry, 14 of which were spent working on fuel cells at Ballard Power Systems and at NRC-IFCI. He also spent 3 years researching electrochemical sensors. Dr. Zhang holds adjunct professorships at the University of Waterloo, the University of British Columbia, and at Peking University. To date, Dr. Zhang has co-authored or edited more than 300 publications including 190 refereed journal papers with approximately 4,700 citations, books, conference proceeding papers, book chapters, and 50 conference and invited oral presentations. He also holds over 10 patents worldwide along with 9 U.S. patent publications and has produced more than 80 industrial technical reports. Dr. Zhang serves as an editor or editorial board member for several international journals and is also the editor for CRC's Electrochemical Energy Storage and Conversion series of books. Dr. Zhang is an active member of the Electrochemical Society, the International Society of Electrochemistry and the American Chemical Society.

    "... one of the best aspects of this book is in the excellent technical details describing other devices (conventional capacitors and batteries) to illustrate the differences between these energy-storage devices. Also, the condensed but very informative descriptions of some of the equipment used to characterize ES materials (SEM, TEM, x-ray analysis) are very enlightening for those who do not typically use these devices. There are excellent descriptions of the theory and application of these imaging and analytical instrumentations. The book provides a wonderful illustration of electrochemical supercapacitors for understanding the practical aspects of the technology. It also provides sufficient technical details on new materials for possible future use in ES components. Readers will gain a comprehensive understanding of the components, designs, and characterizations of ES. Those in industry and academia will benefit from this book."
    —John J. Shea, from IEEE Electrical Insulation Magazine, July/August — Vol. 31, No. 4

    "This book offers an essential background to researchers involved in the development of supercapacitors and may represent both a reference and a starting point for academic and industrial scientists. Also students and post-graduate fellows will find it a comprehensive and valuable resource."
    —Catia Arbizzani, University of Bologna