1st Edition

Electromagnetic Waves, Materials, and Computation with MATLAB®

By Dikshitulu K. Kalluri Copyright 2012
    886 Pages 442 B/W Illustrations
    by CRC Press

    Readily available commercial software enables engineers and students to perform routine calculations and design without necessarily having a sufficient conceptual understanding of the anticipated solution. The software is so user-friendly that it usually produces a beautiful colored visualization of that solution, often camouflaging the fact that the program is executing the wrong simulation of the physical problem.

    Electromagnetic Waves, Materials, and Computation with MATLAB® takes an integrative modern approach to the subject of electromagnetic analysis by supplementing quintessential "old school" information and methods with instruction in the use of newer commercial software such as MATLAB and methods including FDTD. Delving into the electromagnetics of bounded simple media, equations of complex media, and computation, this text includes:

    • Appendices that cover a wide range of associated issues and techniques
    • A concluding section containing an array of problems, quizzes, and examinations
    • A downloadable component for instructors including PowerPoint™ slides, solutions to problems, and more

    Striking a balance between theoretical and practical aspects, internationally recognized expert Dikshitulu Kalluri clearly illustrates how intuitive approximate solutions are derived. Providing case studies and practical examples throughout, he examines the role of commercial software in this process, also covering interpretation of findings. Kalluri’s extensive experience teaching this subject enables him to streamline and convey material in a way that helps readers master conceptual mathematical aspects. This gives them confidence in their ability to use high-level software to write code, but it also ensures that they will never be solely dependent on such programs.

    Part I: Electromagnetics of Bounded Simple Media

    Electromagnetics of Simple Media


    Simple Medium

    Time-Domain Electromagnetics

    Time-Harmonic Fields

    Quasistatic and Static Approximations

    Electromagnetics of Simple Media: One-Dimensional Solution

    Uniform Plane Waves in Sourceless Medium (ρV = 0, Jsource = 0)

    Good Conductor Approximation

    Uniform Plane Wave in a Good Conductor: Skin Effect

    Boundary Conditions at the Interface of a Perfect Electric Conductor with a Dielectric

    AC Resistance

    AC Resistance of Round Wires

    Voltage and Current Harmonic Waves: Transmission Lines

    Bounded Transmission Line

    Electromagnetic Wave Polarization

    Arbitrary Direction of Propagation

    Wave Reflection

    Incidence of p Wave: Parallel-Polarized

    Incidence of s Wave: Perpendicular-Polarized

    Critical Angle and Surface Wave

    One-Dimensional Cylindrical Wave and Bessel Functions

    Two-Dimensional Problems and Waveguides

    Two-Dimensional Solutions in Cartesian Coordinates

    TMmn Modes in a Rectangular Waveguide

    TEmn Modes in a Rectangular Waveguide

    Dominant Mode in a Rectangular Waveguide: TE10 Mode

    Power Flow in a Waveguide: TE10 Mode

    Attenuation of TE10 Mode due to Imperfect Conductors and Dielectric Medium

    Cylindrical Waveguide: TM Modes

    Cylindrical Waveguide: TE Modes

    Sector Waveguide

    Dielectric Cylindrical Waveguide—Optical Fiber

    Three-Dimensional Solutions

    Rectangular Cavity with PEC Boundaries: TM Modes

    Rectangular Cavity with PEC Boundaries: TE Modes

    Q of a Cavity

    Spherical Waves and Applications

    Half-Integral Bessel Functions

    Solutions of Scalar Helmholtz Equation

    Vector Helmholtz Equation

    TMr Modes

    TEr Modes

    Spherical Cavity

    Laplace Equation: Static and Low-Frequency Approximations

    One-Dimensional Solutions

    Two-Dimensional Solutions

    Three-Dimensional Solution

    Miscellaneous Topics on Waves

    Group Velocity vg

    Green’s Function

    Network Formulation

    Stop Bands of a Periodic Media





    Part II: Electromagnetic Equations of Complex Media

    Electromagnetic Modeling of Complex Materials

    Volume of Electric Dipoles

    Frequency-Dependent Dielectric Constant

    Modeling of Metals

    Plasma Medium

    Polarizability of Dielectrics

    Mixing Formula

    Good Conductors and Semiconductors

    Perfect Conductors and Superconductors

    Magnetic Materials

    Artificial Electromagnetic Materials

    Artificial Dielectrics and Plasma Simulation

    Left-Handed Materials

    Chiral Medium

    Waves in Isotropic Cold Plasma: Dispersive Medium

    Basic Equations

    Dielectric–Dielectric Spatial Boundary

    Reflection by a Plasma Half-Space

    Reflection by a Plasma Slab

    Tunneling of Power through a Plasma Slab

    Inhomogeneous Slab Problem

    Periodic Layers of Plasma

    Surface Waves

    Transient Response of a Plasma Half-Space


    Spatial Dispersion and Warm Plasma

    Waves in a Compressible Gas

    Waves in Warm Plasma

    Constitutive Relation for a Lossy Warm Plasma

    Dielectric Model of Warm Loss-Free Plasma

    Conductor Model of Warm Lossy Plasma

    Spatial Dispersion and Nonlocal Metal Optics

    Technical Definition of Plasma State

    Wave in Anisotropic Media and Magnetoplasma


    Basic Field Equations for a Cold Anisotropic Plasma Medium

    One-Dimensional Equations: Longitudinal Propagation and L and R Waves

    One-Dimensional Equations: Transverse Propagation: O Wave

    One-Dimensional Solution: Transverse Propagation: X Wave

    Dielectric Tensor of a Lossy Magnetoplasma Medium

    Periodic Layers of Magnetoplasma

    Surface Magnetoplasmons

    Surface Magnetoplasmons in Periodic Media

    Permeability Tensor

    Optical Waves in Anisotropic Crystals

    Wave Propagation in a Biaxial Crystal along the Principal Axes

    Propagation in an Arbitrary Direction

    Propagation in an Arbitrary Direction: Uniaxial Crystal


    Group Velocity as a Function of Polar Angle

    Reflection by an Anisotropic Half-Space

    Electromagnetics of Moving Media


    Snell’s Law

    Galilean Transformation

    Lorentz Transformation

    Lorentz Scalars, Vectors, and Tensors

    Electromagnetic Equations in Four-Dimensional Space

    Lorentz Transformation of the Electromagnetic Fields

    Frequency Transformation and Phase Invariance

    Reflection from a Moving Mirror

    Constitutive Relations for a Moving Dielectric

    Relativistic Particle Dynamics

    Transformation of Plasma Parameters

    Reflection by a Moving Plasma Slab

    Brewster Angle and Critical Angle for Moving Plasma Medium

    Bounded Plasmas Moving Perpendicular to the Plane of Incidence

    Waveguide Modes of Moving Plasmas

    Impulse Response of a Moving Plasma Medium


    Part III: Electromagnetic Computation

    Introduction and One-Dimensional Problems

    Electromagnetic Field Problem: Formulation as Differential and Integral Equations

    Discretization and Algebraic Equations

    One-Dimensional Problems

    Two-Dimensional Problem

    Finite-Difference Method

    Iterative Solution

    Finite-Element Method

    FEM for Poisson’s Equation in Two Dimensions

    FEM for Homogeneous Waveguide Problem

    Characteristic Impedance of a Transmission Line: FEM

    Moment Method: Two-Dimensional Problems

    Moment Method: Scattering Problem

    Advanced Topics on Finite-Element Method

    Node- and Edge-Based FEM

    Weak Formulation and Weighted Residual Method

    Inhomogeneous Waveguide Problem

    Open Boundary, Absorbing Boundary, Conditions, and Scattering Problem

    The 3D Problem

    Case Study Ridged Waveguide with Many Elements

    Homogenous Ridged Waveguide

    Inhomogeneous Waveguide

    Finite-Difference Time-Domain Method

    Air-Transmission Line

    Finite-Difference Time-Domain Solution

    Numerical Dispersion

    Waves in Inhomogeneous, Nondispersive Media: FDTD Solution

    Waves in Inhomogeneous, Dispersive Media

    Waves in Debye Material: FDTD Solution

    Stability Limit and Courant Condition

    Open Boundaries

    Source Excitation

    Frequency Response

    Finite-Difference Time-Domain Method Simulation of Electromagnetic Pulse Interaction with a Switched Plasma Slab


    Development of FDTD equations

    Interaction of a Continuous Wave with a Switched Plasma Slab

    Interaction of a Pulsed Wave with a Switched Plasma Slab

    Approximate Analytical Methods Based on Perturbation and Variational Techniques

    Perturbation of a Cavity

    Variational Techniques and Stationary Formulas


    Part IV: Appendices

    Appendix 1A: Vector Formulas and Coordinate Systems

    Appendix 1B: Retarded Potentials and Review of Potentials for the Static Cases

    Appendix 1C: Poynting Theorem

    Appendix 1D: Low-Frequency Approximation of Maxwell’s Equations R, L, C, and Memristor M

    Appendix 2A: AC Resistance of a Round Wire when the Skin Depth δ is Comparable to the Radius a of the Wire

    Appendix 2B: Transmission Lines: Power Calculation

    Appendix 2C: Introduction to the Smith Chart

    Appendix 2D: Non-uniform Transmission lines

    Appendix 4A: Calculation of Losses in a Good Conductor at High Frequencies: Surface Resistance RS

    Appendix 6A: On Restricted Fourier Series Expansion

    Appendix 7A: Two- and Three-Dimensional Green’s Functions

    Appendix 9A: Experimental Simulation of a Warm-Plasma Medium

    Appendix 9B: Wave Propagation in Chiral Media

    Appendix 10A: Backscatter from a Plasma Plume due to Excitation of Surface Waves

    Appendix 10B: Classical Photon Theory of Electromagnetic Radiation

    Appendix 10C: Photon Acceleration in a Time-Varying Medium

    Appendix 11A: Thin Film Reflection Properties of a Warm Isotropic Plasma Slab Between Two Half-Space Dielectric Media

    Appendix 11B: The First-Order Coupled Differential Equations for Waves

    in Inhomogeneous Warm Magnetoplasmas

    Appendix 11C: Waveguide Modes of a Warm Drifting Uniaxial Electron Plasma

    Appendix 12A: Faraday Rotation versus Natural Rotation

    Appendix 12B: Ferrites and Permeability Tensor

    Appendix 14A: Electromagnetic Wave Interaction with Moving Bounded Plasmas

    Appendix 14B: Radiation Pressure Due to Plane Electromagnetic Waves Obliquely Incident on Moving Media

    Appendix 14C: Reflection and Transmission of Electromagnetic Waves

    Obliquely Incident on a Relativistically Moving Uniaxial Plasma Slab

    Appendix 14D: Brewster Angle for a Plasma Medium Moving at a Relativistic Speed

    Appendix 14E: On Total Reflection of Electromagnetic Waves from Moving Plasmas

    Appendix 14F: Interaction of Electromagnetic Waves with Bounded Plasmas

    Moving Perpendicular to the Plane of Incidence

    Appendix 16A: MATLAB® Programs

    Appendix 16B: Cotangent Formula

    Appendix 16C: Neumann Boundary Conditions: FEM Method

    Appendix 16D: Standard Area Integral

    Appendix 16E: Numerical Techniques in the Solution of Field Problems

    Appendix 17A: The Problem of Field Singularities

    Appendix 18A: Input Data

    Appendix 18B: Main Programs

    Appendix 18C: Function Programs

    Appendix 21A: Complex Poynting Theorem


    Part V: Problems


    Internationally recognized expert Dikshitulu Kalluri is professor of electrical and computer engineering at the University of Massachusetts-Lowell, where he is coordinator of the doctoral program and co-director of the Center for Electromagnetic Materials and Optical Systems (CEMOS). Dr. Kalluri has collaborated with research groups at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, UCLA, the University of Southern California, and the University of Tennessee. He has also served as a faculty research associate at Air Force Laboratories.

    "… a required reference in the library of anyone doing research or development in plasma physics or engineering."
    —Igor Alexeff, Electrical Engineering Department, University of Tennessee

    "Most appropriate for advanced engineering students. Comprehensive, yet ‘eases’ into difficult matters."
    —Andrew M. Sessler, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory

    "... a meticulously written and extremely useful book for both students and professionals...The approach is especially directed toward electrical engineers whose deeper appreciation of circuits is exploited to help their concept building, [as applied in] transmission line analogies."

    "…brings together many increasingly important concepts from previously somewhat separate areas of electromagnetics into one clear and coherent tome."
    —Michael A. Fiddy, University of North Carolina at Charlotte