Electron Microscopy in Heterogeneous Catalysis: 1st Edition (Hardback) book cover

Electron Microscopy in Heterogeneous Catalysis

1st Edition

By P.L Gai, E.D Boyes

CRC Press

233 pages

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pub: 2003-01-14
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Description

Catalysis is one of the most important technologies in the industrial world, controlling more than 90% of industrial chemical processes and essential for large-scale production of plastics and fuel. Exploring the most common type of catalysis used in industry, Electron Microscopy in Heterogeneous Catalysis provides a coherent account of heterogeneous catalytic processes and catalyst surface structure at the atomic scale as elucidated by electron microscopy techniques.

The book addresses a number of issues that are fundamental to the understanding of heterogeneous catalysis by oxides and supported metals. The properties of a catalyst are governed by its microstructure and chemistry on an atomic scale, and electron microscopy methods are essential to directly analyze these properties. The book provides important information about active species, metastable-transient species, mechanisms of particle catalysis sintering, promoter-poisoning effects on an atomic scale, and catalyst support interactions on a microscale.

Reviews

"This book deals with in situ dynamic observation and analysis of heterogeneous catalysis using environmental cells (EC) in transmission (TEM) and scanning electron microscopes (SEM). In general, it is based on outstanding and unique works carried out by the authors themselves over the past three decades, who pioneered this key enabling area of materials science. It provides comprehensive and yet compact introductions to heterogeneous catalysis and electron microscopy and diffraction, followed by detailed descriptions of electron microscopy studies of oxide catalysis, zeolites, molecular sieves, supported small metal particles, and environmental catalysis. For those who are carrying out in situ dynamic studies of catalysis using EC in TEM and/or SEM, this book gives a state-of-the-art review of this field. More importantly, this book encourages those catalysis students and electron microscopists who are planning to perform in situ dynamic studies of catalysis."

-Professor Hiroyasu Saka, Nagoya University, Japan

"P.L. Gai and E.D. Boyes have produced an authoritative text … [that is] indispensable if this is your subject."

-P. Hawkes, Ultramicroscopy 101 (2004): 73-103

Table of Contents

Preface and Acknowledgements

AN INTRODUCTION TO HETEROGENEOUS CATALYSIS AND CATALYST STRUCTURES

Science and technology of catalysis

Fundamental principles of catalysis: some basic definitions

Electronic configurations and quantum theory

Chemical bonding

Thermodynamic definitions relevant to catalysis and the role of electron microscopy

Structure and chemistry of carbons and hydrocarbons

Catalysis and band theory

Some important structures of solid catalysts

Carbons as supports in catalysis and new forms of carbons with atomic scale building blocks

Oxides and nonstoichiometry in catalysis and the unique role of electron microscopy

Catalysis by oxides

Extended defects and crystallographic shear

ELECTRON MICROSCOPY AND DIFFRACTION IN HETEROGENEOUS CATALYSIS

Background

Imaging in the TEM

Surface profiling in HRTEM

Chemical composition analysis of catalysts in the EM

Electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS)

Convergent beam electron diffraction (CBED)

The development of in situ environmental TM (ETEM) under controlled reaction environments to probe catalysis at the atomic level

Novel wet-ETEM development for nanoscale studies of liquid-catalyst reactions at operating temperatures

Scanning EM (SEM), cathodoluminescence in catalysis and environmental SEM (ESEM)

Scanning transmission EM (STEM)-recent advances

Image processing

Other developments

Parallel chemical studies and correlations with the catalyst microstructure

ELECTRON MICROSCOPY STUDIES OF CATALYSIS BY OXIDES

Single and mixed metal oxide systems: Redox pathways and anion deficiency

Single metal oxide catalysts: MoO3

In situ direct observations of surface defect structures in catalysts under controlled reducing environments and methods for defect analysis

Shear domains and crystallographic shear (CS) planes in catalytic reduction

Electron microscopy and defect thermodynamics: a new understanding of oxidation catalysis

The role of defects in catalytic reactions

Multi-component (practical) oxide catalysts

Iron molybdates in methanol oxidation reactions

Vanadium phosphate (V-P-O) catalysts for butane oxidation technology: the elucidation of active sites by in situ electron microscopy

Examples of other mixed metal oxide systems

Electronic structure of crystallites and dopant distributions by cathodoluminescence electron microscopy

Zirconia (ZrO2)-based solid-acid catalysts and ceria (CeO2) systems

The key role of electron microscopy in the discovery of novel reaction mechanisms in selective oxidation catalysis

Stable silica-based ceramic oxide supports for catalysts: some recent developments

CATALYSIS BY ZEOLITES AND MOLECULAR SIEVES

Structures, acidity, and uses of zeolites

Silicalites and aluminophosphates

Determining three-dimensional structures by ED and HRTEM: MALPO solid acid catalysts

CATALYSIS BY SUPPORTED METAL PARTICLES

Recent developments

Facile versus structure-sensitive reactions

Preparation and characterization of model and practical metallic catalysts

Catalytic mechanisms on supported metals

Experimental studies by electron microscopy

Small particles in HRTEM

Experimental and theoretical developments in small metal particle catalysis using electron microscopy

Structure of small metal particles

EM studies of chemical interactions at metal-support interfaces

Metal-support interactions

In situ ETEM studies of metal-irreducible ceramic support interactions

Methanol synthesis and oxidation reactions

Monometallic nanocatalyst systems: copper nanocatalysts supported on silica (Cu/SiO2)

Bimetallic or alloy systems: atomic structure and composition

Fischer-Tropsch and Ziegler Nutta catalysis

ENVIRONMENTAL CATALYSIS AND CATALYST DESIGN

Perovskite-based catalysts for environmental pollution control: the role of electron microscopy

High temperature superconducting cuprates (HTSC) as catalysts

Hydrodesulfurization (HDS) catalysis

Nanocatalysts in emission control, steam reforming, photocatalysis, and fuel cell catalysis

Nanocatalysts for alternatives to chlorofluorocarbons (CFC)

Concluding remarks

References

Index

About the Series

Series in Microscopy in Materials Science

Learn more…

Subject Categories

BISAC Subject Codes/Headings:
SCI013060
SCIENCE / Chemistry / Industrial & Technical
TEC019000
TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING / Lasers & Photonics