1st Edition

# Elements of Heat Transfer

By

## Ethirajan Rathakrishnan

ISBN 9781439878910
Published March 5, 2012 by CRC Press
550 Pages 178 B/W Illustrations

USD \$125.00

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## Book Description

Written for chemical, mechanical, and aerospace engineering students taking courses on heat and mass transfer, this textbook presents the basics and proceeds to the required theory and its application aspects. Major topics covered include conduction, convection, radiation, boiling, heat exchangers, and mass transfer and are explained in a detailed, to-the-point manner. Along with coverage of the topics, the author provides appropriate numerical examples to clarify theory and concepts. Exercise problems are presented at the end of each chapter to test the understanding gained within each subject. A solutions manual and PowerPoint slides accompany the text, upon qualification.

1 Basic Concepts and Definitions
1.1 Introduction
1.1.1 Driving Potential
1.2 Dimensions and Units
1.2.1 Dimensional Homogeneity
1.3 Closed and Open Systems
1.3.1 Closed System (ControlMass)
1.3.2 Isolated System
1.3.3 Open System (ControlVolume)
1.4 Forms of Energy
1.4.1 Internal Energy
1.5 Properties of a System
1.5.1 Intensive and Extensive Properties
1.6 State and Equilibrium
1.7 Thermal and Calorical Properties
1.7.1 Specific Heat of an Incompressible Substance
1.7.2 Thermally Perfect Gas
1.8 The Perfect Gas
1.9 Summary
1.10 Exercise Problems

Conduction Heat Transfer
2.1 Introduction
2.2 Conduction Heat Transfer in a Stationary Medium
2.2.1 Energy Flux by Conduction
2.3 Thermal Conductivity
2.4 Boundary and Initial Conditions
2.5 Summary
2.6 Exercise Problems

3.1 Introduction
3.2 Steady-State Conduction in a Plane Wall
3.2.1 Thermal Resistance
3.3 Heat Conduction across a Cylindrical Shell
3.3.1 Critical Thickness of Insulation
3.4 Steady Conduction in a Spherical Shell
3.4.1 Critical Thickness of Insulation for a Spherical Shell
3.5 Heat Transfer from Extended Surface
3.5.1 Fins
3.5.2 Infinitely Long Fin
3.5.3 Fin Efficiency or Fin Effectiveness
3.6 The Conduction Shape Factor
3.7 Summary
3.8 Exercise Problems

4.1 Introduction
4.2 Transient Conduction in an Infinite Wall
4.2.1 The Dimensionless Groups
4.2.2 Transient Heating of Bodies with Negligible Internal Resistance
4.3 Lumped System Analysis
4.3.1 Convection Boundary Condition
4.3.2 Criteria for Lumped System Analysis
4.3.3 Penetration Depth-Significance of Thermal Diffusivity
4.3.4 Surface Heat Flux from a Semi-Infinite Solid
4.3.5 The Significance of Thermal Diffusivity α
4.4 Multidimensional Systems
4.5 Product Solution
4.5.1 The Concept of Product Solution
4.6 Summary
4.7 Exercise Problems

Convective Heat Transfer
5.1 Introduction
5.2 The Convection Boundary Layers
5.3 The Convection Heat Transfer Equations
5.3.1 The Velocity Boundary Layer
5.3.2 Thermal Boundary Layer
5.4 Approximation and Special Conditions
5.5 Solving Convection Problems
5.5.1 Similarity Parameters in Heat Transfer
5.6 Boundary Layer Similarity Parameters
5.7 Physical Significance of Dimensionless Parameters
5.8 Boundary Layer Concepts
5.9 Thermal Boundary Layer for Flow Past a Heated Plate
5.9.1 Turbulent Flow
5.9.2 Transition Flow
5.10 Free Convection
5.10.1 Local Nusselt Number
5.10.2 Free Convection Correlations
5.11 Free Convection on Vertical Planes and Cylinders
5.11.1 UniformWall Temperature
5.11.2 UniformWall Heat Flux
5.12 Free Convection on a Horizontal Plate
5.12.1 Effects of Turbulence
5.13 Free Convection fromInclined Surfaces
5.13.1 Free Convection on Inclined Cylinders
5.13.2 Free Convection on a Sphere
5.13.3 Simplified Equations for Air
5.14 Free Convection in Enclosed Spaces
5.14.2 Vertical Layer
5.14.3 Inclined Layer
5.14.4 Horizontal Cylindrical Annulus
5.14.5 Spherical Annulus
5.14.6 Non-Newtonian Fluids
5.14.7 Combined Natural and Forced Convection
5.15 Vortex behind a Circular Cylinder
5.15.1 Drag Coefficient
5.15.2 Variation of h around a Cylinder
5.16 Flow Past a Noncircular Cylinder
5.17 Flow Past a Sphere
5.17.1 Drag Coefficient
5.17.2 Heat Transfer Coefficient
5.18 Flow across a Bundle of Tubes
5.18.1 Heat Transfer Correlations
5.18.2 Pressure Drop Correlations
5.18.3 Liquid Metals
5.19 Heat Transfer in High-Speed Flow over a Flat Plate
5.20 Summary
5.21 Exercise Problems

6.1 Introduction
6.3.1 Properties of Surfaces
6.4 The Greenhouse Effect
6.4.2 Emissive Power
6.5 The View or Configuration Factor
6.5.1 View Factor Relation
6.7 Radiation Exchange in an Enclosure
6.7.1 Net Radiation Exchange at a Surface
6.7.3 Two-Surface Enclosure
6.9 Limitations
6.13 Radiation Properties of the Environment
6.15 Radiation Effect on Temperature Measurement
6.17 Summary
6.18 Exercise Problems
7 Mass Transfer
7.1 Introduction
7.2 Mass Transfer Process
7.3 Fick’s Law of Diffusion
7.4 Species Conservation Equation
7.5 Steady-State Diffusion in Dilute Solutions in Stationary Media
7.6 Transient Diffusion in Dilute Solution in Stationary Media
7.7 Diffusion in a Semi-Infinite Slab
7.8 Diffusion in Nondilute Gases
7.9 Convective Mass Transfer
7.10 Counterdiffusion in Gases
7.11 Evaporation of Water
7.12 Summary
7.13 Exercise Problems

8 Boiling and Condensation
8.1 Introduction
8.2 Boiling Heat Transfer
8.2.1 Pool Boiling
8.3 Heat Transfer Correlations in Pool Boiling
8.4 Peak Heat Flux
8.5 Minimum Heat Flux
8.6 Film Boiling
8.7 Flow Boiling
8.8 Condensation Heat Transfer
8.9 Film Condensation
8.9.1 Flow Regimes
8.9.2 Flow Condensation Heat Transfer Correlations
8.10 Wavy Laminar Flow over a Vertical Plate
8.11 Turbulent Flow on Vertical Plates
8.11.1 Inclined Plate
8.11.2 Vertical Tubes
8.11.3 Horizontal Tubes and Spheres
8.11.4 Horizontal Tube Banks
8.12 Film Condensation inside Horizontal Tubes
8.13 Dropwise Condensation
8.14 Summary
8.15 Exercise Problems

9 Heat Exchangers
9.1 Introduction
9.2 Types of Heat Exchangers
9.3 The OverallHeat Transfer Coefficient
9.4 Fouling Factors
9.5 Heat Exchanger Performance
9.6 Log Mean Temperature Difference Method
9.6.1 Counter-FlowHeat Exchanger
9.6.2 Multipass and Cross-Flow Heat Exchanger
9.7 The Effective-NTU Method
9.7.1 Use of _-NTU Relations for Rating and Sizing of Heat Exchangers
9.8 Compact Heat Exchangers
9.9 Analysis for Variable Properties
9.10 Boilers and Condensers
9.11 Selection of Heat Exchangers
9.11.1 Heat Transfer Rate
9.11.2 Cost
9.11.3 Size and Weight
9.11.4 Pumping Power
9.11.5 Materials
9.12 Summary
9.13 Exercise Problems

Appendix

Index

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