Elements of Industrial Hazards: Health, Safety, Environment and Loss Prevention, 1st Edition (Paperback) book cover

Elements of Industrial Hazards

Health, Safety, Environment and Loss Prevention, 1st Edition

By Ratan Raj Tatiya

CRC Press

426 pages

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Description

An introductory course on Health, Safety and Environment (HSE) as applicable to all manufacturing and exploration engineering industries. Its first part deals with fundamentals, ecology and environmental engineering and covers air and water pollution sources, magnitude, measuring techniques and remedial measures to minimize them. The second part deals with industrial hazards, health and safety. It includes standards, strategies, risk assessment and accident analysis. The last part treats eight elements of HSE management, which is currently a critical activity for virtually any engineering business. Intended for a wide audience active in the engineering industry, ranging from the plant supervisor to HSE consultants to operators in the field.

Table of Contents

1. INTRODUCTION

1.0 Introduction – Industries & Related Issues

1.1 Industrialization – Brief History

1.2 Current Scenario

1.2.1 Population Growth

1.2.2 Life Style

1.2.3 Globalization

1.2.4 Buyer’s Market

1.2.5 Technological Developments and Renovations

1.2.6 Mineral Production and Consumption Trends, and Rapid Resources Depletion

1.2.7 Information Technology (IT) and its Impacts

1.3 Industrial (Occupational) Health, Safety & Environment (HSE)

1.3.1 Industry & Environment

1.3.2 Industry & Safety

1.4 Impact of Industrialization to the Society

1.4.1 Mass Balance System / Equation

1.4.2 Damage Due to Industrialization

1.4.3 Birth to the Global Issues

1.5 HSE – A Critical Business Activity

1.6 Environmental Policy

1.6.1 Sustainable Development

1.6.2 Development Of Industrial Technology

1.6.3 Education - Encouraging Stewardship of Natural Resources.

1.6.4 The Ultimate Goal

1.7 Questions

1.8 References

 

2. ECOLOGY, ENVIRONMENT, MINERAL RESOURCES & ENERGY

2.0 Environment Related Issues

2.1 Ecology

2.1.1 Eco-system

2.1.2 Classifcation – Ecology

2.1.3 Ecological components

2.2 Earth’s Great spheres

2.2.1 Biotic Component of planet earth – Biosphere

2.2.2 Natural Cycles

2.2.2.1Sulfur Cycle

2.2.2.2 Nitrogen Cycle

2.2.2.3 Carbon Cycle

2.2.4 Solar Energy’s Contribution

2.3 Food –Food chains – Food webs

2.4 Abiotic

2.5 Population

2.5.1 Impacts Population Growth

2.5.2 Concepts to Remember

2.6 Chemicals in Motion: Cycles in the Ecosphere

2.7 Minerals - The Nonrenewable Resources and their use in Energy, Goods and Services Production

2.8 Energy Sources

2.8.1 Classification Energy Sources

2.8.2 Green Power and its Purchasing Options

2.8.3 Energy sources and their merits and limtaions.

2.8.4 Top 7 Promising Alternative Energies

2.8.5 GDP, Energy Consumption Pattern and CO2 Emissions

2.8.6 Risk of CO2 Emissions

2.8.7 Coal for Energy Security

2.8.8 Clean Coal Technology (CCT)

2.8.9 Carbon Capture & Storage (CCT)

2.9 Energy Crisis

2.9.1Wayout / Solution to the Enrgy crisis

2.9.2 Energy Efficient Lighting tips

2.9.3 Energy conservation tips

2.9.4 Things to Remember / Way forward

2.10 Questions

2.11 References

3. AIR POLLUTION

3.1 Introduction

3.2 Air Pollution

3.2.1 Clean and dry air’s composition

3.2.2 Air Pollutants

3.3 Air toxics

3.4 Air Quality Standards

3.4.1 The Air Quality Index (AQI) or Pollution Standard Index (PSI)

3.4.2 Determination of Pollution Standard Index (PSI) Value

3.5 Performance Monitoring

3.5.1 Air pollutant receptors and adverse impacts

3.6 Global Warming – The Greenhouse Effect

3.6.1 Green house impacts

3.6.2 Changing Climate

3.6.3 Calculation of CO2 emission from hydrocarbons

3.7 Acid Rain

3.7.1 How acid rain is formed?

3.7.2 pH

3.8 Ozone Gas & Photochemical Smog (PCS)

3.8.1 Ozone Depletion Process

3.9 Noise Pollution

3.9.1 Noise Sources

3.9.2 Industrial Noise

3.9.3 Important Relations for Sound/Noise measurement

3.9.4 Noise Control Techniques

3.9.5 Noise related calculations

3.9.6 Noise Threshold Limits

3.10 Vibrations

3.11 Dust

3.11.1 Conditions for dust to become nuisance

3.11.2 Factors Affecting the Degree of Health Risk

3.11.3 Physiological Effects of Dusts

3.11.4 Sources of Dust

3.11.5 Control of Dust

3.12 Particulate Matter (PM)

3.12.1 Grouping particulate matter

3.13 Air samples

3.14 Remedial measures

3.15 Concluding remarks

3.16 Questions

3.17 Reference

4. WATER POLLUTION

4.1 Introduction

4.1.1 Water Cycle

4.2 Worldwide Water Resources - Some Facts

4.3 Water Quality Standards (WQS)

4.3.1 Water quality standards based on receiving environment

4.4 Groundwater

4.4.1 Sources and routes for groundwater contamination

4.5 Water use

4.5.1 Industry

4.5.2 Mining

4.5.3 Agriculture

4.6 Water Pollution

4.6.1 Point sources of pollution

4.6.2 Non-point sources of pollution

4.6.3 Types of Water Pollutants

4.6.3.1 Biological Agents

4.6.3.2 Toxic Substance

4.6.3.3 Organic Substance

4.6.3.4 Thermal Pollution

4.6.4 Natural Pollution

4.6.4.1 Dissolved Oxygen (DO)

4.6.4.2 Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD)

4.6.4.3 Hardness

4.6.4.4 Acidity

4.6.4.5 Alkalinity

4.6.4.6 Colors

4.6.4.7 Radio active

4.6.4.8 Oils & Petrochemicals

4.6.4.9 Red tide

4.7 Sewage

4.7.1 Suspended or sedimentary solids

4.7.2 Polluted Municipality water

4.8 Marine Pollution

4. 9 Water in Subsurface (Underground) Areas

4.9.1 The Main Sources of Water

4.9.2 Effects of Subsurface Water

4.10 Acid Mine Drainage

4.10.1 Chemistry

4.10.2 Yellow boy

4.11 Case study: Water pollution due to Mining, Petroleum Products’ handling and Industrial activities.

4.11.1 Study Areas

4.11.2 Sample collection and preparation

4.11.3 Observations

4.11.4 Inference drawn - Physical and Chemical Properties

4.11.5 Heavy-Metal Concentration

4.11.6 Conclusion

4. 12 Bottle Water

4.13 Concluding remarks

4.14 Questions

4. 15 References

5. SOLID INDUSTRIAL WASTE & LAND DEGRADATION

5.1 Introduction

5.2 Classification

5.2.1 Non-hazardous wastes

5.2.2 Hazardous wastes

5.3 The Growth of Waste

5.3.1 The Waste problems

5.3.2 Life Style

5.4 Methods of Waste Disposal

5.4.1 Source reduction

5.4.2 Reuse

5.4.3 Recycling of Waste

5.4.4 Treatment

5.4.4.1 Incineration

5.4.5 Responsible disposal

5.4.5.1 Landfill

5.5 Land Degradation due to Industrial or Domestic Waste Disposal

5.5.1 Land Degradation

5.5.2 Soil degradation / Pollution

5.6 Waste Generation & its Management in Mining & Excavation (Civil) Industries - Some Basics

5.6.1 Surface Excavations / Mining

5.6.2 Dumping Site

5.7 Waste Management in Petroleum Industry - A Case Study

5.7.1 Waste Management

5.7.2 Waste in petroleum industry

5.7.2.1 Audit

5.7.2.2 Waste Management Plan

5.7.2.3 Waste Consignment Note

5.7.3 Waste minimization

5.7.4 Inventory Management

5.7.5 Improved Operation

5.7.6 Material Substitution

5.7.7 Equipment Modifications

5.7.8 Waste Reuse

5.7.9 Waste Recycle

5.7.10 Waste Treatment

5.7.11 Incineration

5.7.12 Waste Disposal

5.8 Tips for Reducing Solid Waste (as advised by EPA)

5.9 A classic example from Lord Budha’s Disciple

5.10 Concluding remarks

5.11 Questions

5.12 References

6. INDUSTRIAL HAZARDS

6.1 Industrial Hazards

6.1.1 List of hazards

6.1.2 Disaster

6.1.3 Health risk

6.2 Fires

6.2.1 The Fire Triangle Concept

6.2.2 Concepts - Mechanism of fire

6.2.3 Ignitions sources of major fires

6.2.4 Classification of fires

6.2.5 Fire Protection

6.2.6 Fire And Emergency

6.2.7 Fixed Fire Fighting Equipment

6.2.8 Fire Fighting Department

6.2.8.1 Introduction

6.2.8.2 Functions

6.3 Explosions

6.3.1 Classification

6.3.1.1 Mechanical

6.3.1.2 Detonation, Deflagration and Shockwaves

6.3.1.3 Confined & Unconfined Explosions

6.3.1.4 Air blast

6.3.1.5 Pressure Vessel Raptures (over pressure)

6.3.1.6 Rock burst and Bumps

6.3.1.7 Vapor Cloud Explosions (VCE)

6.3.1.8 Physical explosion or eruption

6.3.1.9 Methane and Coal Dust Explosions

6.3.1.10 Sulfide dust explosions

6.3.1.11 Explodable dusts

6.4 Dow index to assess degree of Hazards

6.5 Incidents responsible for onset of hazards and also accidents

6.5.1 Spillage – which could be caused by

6.5.2 Leakage - which could be caused by

6.5.3 Unintended venting

6.5.4 Failures at normal working pressure

6.5.6 Equipment failure due to excessive pressure

6.6 Losses in Chemical Industry due to fires and explosions

6.7 Hazards with flammable liquids, and precautions

6.8 Static hazards associated with Ammonium Nitrate Fuel Oil mixture (ANFO) loading

6.9 Toxic

6.9.1 Asphyxiate gases

6.9.2 Irritant gases

6.9.3 Poisonous gases

6.9.4 Portal of Entry

6.9.5 Remedial measures

6.9.6 Toxicology

6.9.7 Summary: Classification - Toxicity Related Hazards

6.10 Hazards while using machinery

6.11 Hazards: Surface or Subsurface (Underground) Mines

6.12 Classification of Hazardous Materials

6.12.1 Explosive Materials

6.12.2 Compressed Gases

6.12.3 Flammable liquids and solids

6.12.4 Chemically Reactive Materials

6.12.5 Corrosive Material

6.12.6 Flammable solids

6.12.7 Controlled Materials

6.12.8 Workplace Hazardous Materials Information System (WHMIS)

6.13 Hazards Analysis Methods

6.14 Inherent Safer Design Strategies

6.14.1 Minimize

6.14.2 Substitute / Elimination

6.14.3 Moderate

6.14.4 Simplify

6.14.5 Location/ Sitting / Transportation

6.14.6 Change to Inherent Safety Strategy

6.15 Breathing Apparatus

6.16 Way forward

6.17 Vocabulary

6.18 Questions

6.19 References

7. OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH & SAFETY (OHS)

7.1 Occupational Health and Safety (OHS)

7.2 Elements: Occupational Health (OH)

7.3 Industrial Hygiene

7.3.1 Steps for managing industrial hygiene

7.4 Fundamental Principles of Industrial Hygiene

7.4.1 Anticipation

7.4.2 Identified / Recognized

7.4.2.1 Dust generation

7.4.2.2 Fibers Asbestos

7.4.2.3 Noise generation

7.4.2.4 Vibrations

7.4.2.5 Welding

7.4.2.6 Hazardous salts

7.4.2.7 Diesel emissions

7.4.2.8 Foul gases

7.4.2.9 Metals

7.4.2.10 Extreme Temperatures - Heat & Humidity

7.4.2.11 Radiation Hazards

7.4.2.12 Vapors

7.4.2.13 Liquids

7.5 Aqueous Effluents - permissible quality & efficient discharge

7.5.1Parameters concerning Effluent discharges effluent discharge

7.5.2 Performance Standards

7.5.3 Effluents discharge receiving environment

7.5.4 Effluent Discharge / Disposal - Surface Water-Bodies

7.5.5 Effluent Discharges / disposal - Marine (Sea)

7.5.6 Effluent Discharges – Sewage Treatment Systems

7.6 House Keeping

7.6.1 Aspects to be adhered

7.6.2 Dealing with spillage

7.6.3 Administrative controls

7.6.4 The 5S Concept

7.6.5 Sanitation

7.7 Working Conditions

7.8 Ergonomics

7.8.1 Introduction

7.8.2 Making things user-friendly

7.8.3 Impacts of poor ergonomics

7.8.4 Impacts of good ergonomics

7.8.4.1 Improved labor relations 

7.8.4.2 Safeguarding skilled and experienced human resources 

7.8.4.3 Offsetting limitations on age of employees

7.8.4.4 Reduced maintenance downtime 

7.8.5 Work in Neutral Postures - Improved efficiency with better working posture.  

7.8.6 Identifying waste 

7.8.7 Fresh insights on your operations 

7.9 Occupational Health Surveillance

7.9.1 Organizational Culture and workplace stresses

7.9.1.1 Organizational Culture and Commitment

7.9.1.2 Workplace stress, its adverse impacts and way outs

7.9.2 Lost Performance at work (Presenteeism)

7.9.2.1 Presenteeism

7.9.2.2 Health Promotion Management (HPM) - What it is?

7.9.2.3 Health Risks and Behavior

Developing health profile for the businesses - A case study

7.9.3 Occupational Hygienic Risk - Exposure Assessment And Control Measures

7.9.3.1 Health related variables influencing working life of an industrial worker

7.9.3.2 Periodic health surveillance: based on exposure-risk

7.10 Notified Diseases and preventive measures

7.11 Questions

7.12 References

8. INDUSTRIAL SAFETY

8.1 Introduction

8.2 Safety Elements and Strategies

8.3 Safety Elements

8.3.1 People / Industrial workers

8.3.2 Systems developed to run the show

8.3.3 The working environment

8.4 Strategies

8.5 Lifecycle approach

8.6 Layers of Protection

8.7 Accidents

8.7.1 Accident - a three-step

8.7.2 Accidents / Incident Analysis

8.7.3 Accidents related calculations

8.7.4 Degree (Type) of injuries

8.7.5 Accident Causes

8.7.6 Accident Costs

8.7.7 Remedial Measures

8.8 Conceptual Planning, Detailed Design And Evaluation

8.9 Training and Education

8.10 Personal Protective Equipment (PPE)

8.11 Risk Analysis

8.12 Case study: Without a ‘sugar’ coat! : British Sugar

8.13 Substandard behaviour and workplace accidents, and way-outs

8.14 Questions

8.15 References

9. LOSS PREVENTION

9.1 Introduction

9.1.1 Aims and Objectives of an Industrial Set-Up

9.1.2 Input Resources

9.2 Loss Prevention

9.3 Loss Prevention Strategy

9.3.1Content Employees

9.3.2 Efficient Systems

9.3.3 Legal Compliances

9.4 Human Resources (HR) – Manpower – HR Management

9.5 Managing Plant, Equipment, Machines, Tools and Appliances

9.5.1Proper Equipment Selection

9.5.2Efficient Utilization

9.5.3 Effective Maintenance

9.5.4 Preventive Maintenance

9.6 Abnormalities

9.7 Classification - Losses

9.7.1 Direct Losses in Various Forms or Types

9.7.2 Indirect Losses:

9.7.3 Losses in a Manufacturing Plant - Reasons and Suggested Measures to Minimize them

9.8 Wastage

9.9 Case-Study Illustrating Computation of Financial Losses

Effective Systems - Best Practices

9.10 Quality Management System (QMS)

9.10.1 Six Sigma

9.10.2Quality Control Tools (QC Tools)

9.10.3 Benchmarking & Standardization

9.10.4 ISO 9000

9.10.5 Other Models of Standards

9.11 Legal Compliances Including Environment Management Systems (EMS)

9.12 ISO 14000, And ISO 14001

9.13 Effective Training, Competency and Awareness

9.14 Effective Communication

9.15 World Class Management (WCM)

9.16 Precision in Operations

9.17 Emergency Preparedness and Response

9.18 Way Forward

9.19 Health, Safety and Loss Prevention (HSLP) Management System Effectiveness

9.20 Case Study - Three Pillars of Equal Strength for Loss Prevention

9.21 Questions

9.22 Reference

 

10. HSE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM

10.1 Introduction

10.1.1 HSE – A Critical Business Activity

10.1.2 Vision

10.2 HSE Leadership And Commitment

10.2.1 Visibility

10.2.2 Target Settings

10.2.3 Culture

10.2.4 Informed Involvement

10.2.5 Accountabilities

10.2.6 Checklist

10.3 HSE Policy

10.4 Organization, Responsibilities, Resources, Standards & Documents

10.4.1Training needs

10.4.2 Resources required

10.4.3 Role and Responsibilities

10.5 Hazards and Effects Management

10.5.1 Steps in Hazards and Effects Management Process

10.5.2 Control Of Hazards And Effects

10.5.3 Hemp Tools - Risk Analysis

10.5.4 Recovery Measures

10.6 Planning and Procedures

10.6.1 Emergency Measures / Preparedness

10.7 Implementation And Monitoring

10.8 HSE Audit

10.9 Review

10.10 Management Commitment

10.11 Management: Occupational Hazards (Health & Physique)

10.12 Environment Management

10.12.1Why Pollution?

10.12.2 Mass Balance System / Equation

10.12.3 Environment Degradation in an Industrial Set-Up

10.12.4 Main Sources to Pollute Air, Water and Land Environments

10.13 Environment Management

10.14 Sustainable Developments

10.15 Concluding Remarks

10.16 Questions

10.17 References

Subject Categories

BISAC Subject Codes/Headings:
TEC009150
TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING / Civil / Soil & Rock