176 Pages
    by Routledge

    178 Pages
    by Routledge

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    Ivory is big business, and in some parts of Africa elephants have been hunted almost to extinction in the quest for it. The losses to African economies have been catastrophic. Now there is an international ban on the trade and conservation is. the principal goal. This should be a matter for rejoicing, but nothing is quite so simple. The authors of this book have looked at the overall statistics, including those for countries where the elephant population is stable. They have considered the multiplicity of economic and social functions fulfilled by ensuring that elephant herds survive, tourism, a variety of ecological purpose. and, finally, as a source of ivory. They show how the careful management of elephants as a resource can best serve African interests. This book is at the cutting edge of economic thinking and provides a model for the consideration of the difficult relationship between people and wildlife. Originally published in 19990

    List of Tables List of Figures List of Acronyms and Abbreviations Preface Acknowledgements 1. Elephants in Decline Introduction The Decline of the African Elephant The Role of the Ivory Trade The Economics of the Decline in Elephant Populations Further Issues in the Decline of Elephant Populations Economic Incentives for Conservation Current Situation Appendix 1.1: A bioeconomic Model of Elephant Decline 2. African Exports: Quantity and Value Introduction Background to Africa's Ivory Trade Estimating African Ivory Exports: 1950-88 The Value of African Ivory Exports: 1979-88 Intra-Africa Trade and the African Carving Industry Appendix 2.1: An approach to Estimating African Ivory Exports, 1950-88 Appendix 2.2: Estimating the Value of African Ivory Exports, 1979-88 3. The Ivory Trade Flow: Worked and Unworked Intermediate and Final Demand Difficulties in Tracing Ivory Trade Flows Trade Flows and Final Demand: Hong Kong and Japan Trade Flows and Final Demand: Europe Trade Flows and Final Demand: USA Trade Flows and Final Demand: China Trade Flows and Final Trade Flows and Final Conclusion Appendix 3.1: Worked 4. Demand Analysis: J Introduction Japan analysis Hong Kong analysis Conclusion Appendix 4.1: The Raw Appendix 4.2: The Raw Demand: India Demand: other Countries Ivory Trade Database Japan and Hong Kong Ivory Demand Model: Japan Ivory Demand Model: Hong Kong 5. Policies for the Regulation of the Ivory Trade Introduction Regulation in the Range States Previous Attempts at International Regulation International Regulation and the African Elephant Alternative Mechanisms for International Regulation Conclusion 6. Looking to the Future: Policy Options to Save the Elephant Current Cites Regulation: The Appendix I Listing The Impact of an Ivory Trade Ban A Proposal for the International Regulation of the Trade Domestic Reform: the Importance of Local Ownership Conclusion: The Future of the African Elephant Index


    Timothy M. Swanson, Edward B. Barbier, Joanne C. Burgess, David W. Pearce