1st Edition

Emission Control from Industrial Boilers

    From the Preface
    The Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) of 1990 significantly affect commercial and industrial combustion devices such as boilers, incinerators, and other burners. Under the new emission regulations already promulgated and those being developed, compliance will require improved equipment, more detailed operator training, new permits, more complex monitoring and reporting, as well as other requirements. All emissions must be considered, e.g., particulates and gases (acid, organic, hazardous, NOx, ozone).
    Many industrial boiler plants have been retrofitted to change fuel and/or combustion operating conditions as a means to meet new air pollution control requirements. New regulations will continue to be developed by the CAAA of 1990 that will require changes to other boilers and combustion systems. This book is intended to acquaint industry with the equipment and operating options that are available to reduce emissions while controlling costs. Specific topics are addressed, including regulatory requirements, boiler and burner equipment retrofits, combustion modification, air emission control and monitoring equipment selection, maintenance, and cost. The twelve chapters of this book are written by seven different authors. The authors use fifty-two figures and forty-four tables to help explain the written text and to make it more interesting and useful to readers.

    The Clean Air Act
    Background Coexisting with the CAAA The CAA Amendments of 1990 Title I: Non-Attainment Provisions Title III: Hazardous Air Pollutants (HAPs) Title IV: Acid Rain Title V: Operating Permits Title VI: Enforcement
    Permitting Procedures
    Overview Emission Limits Construction Permits-New Source Review Operation Permits Compliance Demonstration New Requirements
    Types of Boiler Systems and Combustion Fundamentals
    Introduction Air Pollution Considerations The Spreader Stoker Waste Heat Boilers Small Boilers Comparative Data for System Air Pollution Controls with and without Waste Heat Boilers Combustion Fundamentals for Fuels with Air Convenient Correlation Data
    Compliance Testing
    The Source Test Typical Stack Sampling Test Plan Example Test Plan Modified Method 5 Test Method for Condensible Particulate Example Outline of a Stack Test Report Standard and Specialized Testing Continuous Monitors Combustion Gas Monitoring
    Survey of Air Pollution Control Techniques
    Introduction Data Required for Air Pollution Control Systems Comparison of Control Devices Specifications for Wet Scrubber Systems Type of Control Systems
    Cyclonic Dust Collectors
    Introduction The Inlet The Body Section The Cone Section The Receiver or Spinout The Outlet Pipe/Vortex Finder Cyclone Myths Cost Considerations Space Requirements Cyclones Compared to Other Control Devices Cyclone Troubleshooting Gas Conditions at Collector Inlet
    Principles of Wet Scrubbers
    Introduction Systems Particle Size Coal-Fired Boiler Scrubber Characteristics Atomization Particle Control Mechanisms Venturi Scrubbers Countercurrent and Cross-Flow Scrubbers Waste Energy Powered Scrubbers Unique Scrubbers General Information Mist Elimination/Separation Operating Characteristics Wet Scrubbing Systems
    Principles of Dry Scrubbers
    Introduction Chemistry for Acid Gas Control Dry Scrubbers Retrofit for Boiler Systems Specifications Cost Factors
    Principles of Operation of Fabric Filters
    History Theory of Operation Components of a Baghouse Types of Fabric Filters Side Stream Systems Critical Design Issues Summary
    The Cost of Control and Retrofits
    Introduction Generalized Equipment Costs Cost Extrapolation Estimating Capital Cost from Purchase Cost Annual Operating Costs References
    Disposal of Residuals from Industrial Boilers
    Types of Residuals Legal Classification of Residuals Handling and Transporting Ash Ash Disposal Ash as a Building Material Wastewater Management
    Combustion and Environmental Emission Monitoring
    Introduction Fail Safety Predicting Flue Gas Quantity and Composition Stack Sampling Continuous Emission Monitoring Some Possible System Components and Costs


    John T. Quigley, Frank L. Cross Jr., Howard D. Hesketh, Southern Illinois University, USA.