Children and Emotional Abuse is a research-informed learning resource for students in social work about the dynamics and consequences of psychological abuse—especially as it occurs in dysfunctional families and affects children and adolescents. Emotional abuse is still not widely understood or recognized. Helping professionals need to recognize emotional abuse, understand the damage it does, the theories that account for it, and be prepared to help children and families where the abuse often occurs along with physical and sexual abuse. This text will draw upon current peer-reviewed literature and evidence-based studies and summarize essential information to prepare students for careers in helping professions. Each chapter will also contain brief vignettes to illustrate some of the key points. This book is for courses in child welfare and child abuse/neglect, as well as other social work courses that focus on children.
Table of Contents
Table of Contents Preface 5 Chapter 1: 6 Introduction 6 Case Example 1 7 Case Example 2 8 Case Example 3 8 Case Example 4 9 What is Emotional Abuse? 10 Case Example 5 17 Case Example 6 19How is Child Neglect Defined? 22 Types of Child Neglect 24 Physical and Emotional Neglect 28 Case Example 7 29 Case Example 8 30 Case Example 9 31 The Prevalence of Emotional Abuse 34 Child Neglect Estimates 39 Additional Estimates 40 Targeted Youth in Care 41 Other Sources of Information 43 The Problem with Prevalence Estimates 44 Multiple Victimizations, Poly-Victimization, Multicategory Abuse 46 A Final Note About Prevalence 47 Key Chapter Takeaways 48 Glossary 49 Class Discussion Questions 49 Chapter 2: Underlying Causes of Emotional Abuse 51 Family Characteristics Associated with Child Maltreatment 53 Perpetrator Characteristics 54 Other Studies Examining Risk Factors 55 Case Examples 10 62 Case Examples 11, 12, 13 63 Theories Accounting for Child Maltreatment 65 Attachment Theory 65 Ecological Model 70 Intergenerational Transmission Theory 75 Biological Theories 79 Social Learning 80 Not All Doom and Gloom 82 Final Chapter Note 84 Key Chapter Takeaways 86 Glossary 86 Class Discussion Questions 88 Chapter 3: The Effects of Emotional Abuse 89 Studies of Adverse Childhood Experience (ACE) 90 Mental Disorder/Mental Health 92 Alcohol Dependence/Substance Use 101 Physical Health 105 Obesity 106 Eating Disorders 107 Cancer 108 Ischemic Heart Disease 112 Educational Achievement 112 Violence 117 The Double Whammy 121 Key Chapter Takeaways 122 Glossary 124 Class Discussion Questions 125 Chapter 4: Assessment of Emotional Abuse 126 Poor vs. Dysfunctional Parenting 126 Overview of the Basic CPS Investigative Process 130 Behaviors/Issues Defining Abuse/Neglect Types 135 Case Example 14 139 Categories of Emotional Abuse 142 Assessing Emotional Abuse in Children from Behavioral and Developmental Features 145 Investigative Assessment Procedures 147 The Importance of Getting It Right 152 Tools for Assessing Emotional Abuse in Children 153 Structured Interview Schedules 153 Self-Report Instruments for Children 156 Considerations in Selecting Tools 161 Additional Tools 162 Tips For Locating Instruments 164 Criticisms of Self-Report Instruments 166 Glossary 168 Class Discussion Questions 169 Chapter 5: Intervening and Treating Emotional Abuse 172 Introduction 172 Applying Child Maltreatment Interventions to Emotional Abuse 173 Theoretical Perspectives Informing Emotional Abuse Intervention 175 Decision-Making and Evidence-Based Practice 178 Common Factors Found in Effective Interventions 180 Interventions Targeting Emotional Abuse 182 What’s the Threshold Needed for Intervention? 183 The Presenting Problem and the Focus of the Intervention 185 Case Example 15 188 Parent-Focused Approaches 190 Triple P Positive Parenting Program 191 Family Preservation and the Homebuilders Program 193 Child-Focused Approaches 196 Child Traumatic Stress and Emotional Abuse 196 Trauma-Focused Behavioral Therapy 199 Child-Parent Psychotherapy 201 Case Example 16 204 Child-Parent Focused Approaches 205 Parent-Child Interaction Therapy 206 Combined Parent-Child Cognitive Behavioral Approach 207 Case Example 17 210 School-Based Approaches to Intervention 211 Cognitive Behavioral Intervention for Trauma in Schools 212 Prevention of Emotional Abuse 213 Universal Prevention Approaches 214 Selective Prevention Approaches 214 Targeted Prevention Approaches 216 Trauma-Informed Care 218 Key Chapter Takeaways 221 Glossary 223 Class Discussion Questions 224 References 225 Appendix A: More Instruments 246 Appendix B: Resources 252 Appendix C: Biopsychosocial and Trauma-Informed Clinical 254 Assessment of children