1st Edition

Emotional Labor in Work with Patients and Clients Effects and Recommendations for Recovery

Edited By Dorota Żołnierczyk-Zreda Copyright 2021
    128 Pages 20 B/W Illustrations
    by CRC Press

    128 Pages 20 B/W Illustrations
    by CRC Press

    This book describes psychosocial working conditions that negatively impact the mental and physical well-being of employees of various “assistance-related” professional groups, as well as individuals whose work is related to contact with demanding clients. It offers concepts and research on the causes and effects of emotional burden (most often manifested as stress and burnout) when working with patients, children, and clients.

    The book provides a detailed analysis of various aspects of emotional burden at work. It includes a description of studies carried out in 5 different professional groups that were exposed to emotional burden during emotional work and emotional labour. The book discusses the application of known and international diagnostic methods and provides an intercultural comparison. The current diagnosis of stress and burnout, as well as physical and mental health of individuals performing emotional work will be covered, as well as offering practical solutions on assistance for individuals based on the diagnosis of their health.

    This book is for any professional or aspiring professional in the field, including postgraduate students. Scientists and practitioners in the field of work and health psychology, management, occupational health and safety, and HR will find this book of interest. Employers of assistance and services sectors, authorities formulating employment laws, lawyers, and occupational medicine physicians are also among this book’s top audience.

    1. Emotional Labor at Work with Patients and Customers – The Effects and Recommendations for Recovery

    Dorota Żołnierczyk-Zreda (ORCiD: 0000-0002-6637-7076)


    2. Stress-inducing customer behaviors and wellbeing in tax administration workers. What is the role of emotional labor?

    Zofia Mockałło (ORCiD: 0000-0002-1756-9215)

    2.1 Introduction

    2.1.1. Stress-inducing customer behaviors and worker wellbeing

    2.1.2. Emotional labor

    2.1.3. The effects of emotional labor

    2.1.4. Present study

    2.2. Method

    2.2.1. Participants and procedure

    2.2.2. Measures

    2.2.3. Statistical analysis

    2.3 Results

    2.3.1. The mediating role of emotional labor in the relationship between stress-inducing customer behaviors and professional burnout of workers Disproportionate customer expectations and employee disengagement from work: the mediating role of emotional labor Disproportionate customer expectations and worker exhaustion: the mediating role of emotional labor Hostile customer behaviors and employee disengagement from work: the mediating role of emotional labor Hostile customer behaviors and worker exhaustion: the mediating role of emotional labor

    2.3.2. The mediating role of emotional labor in the relationship between stress-inducing customer behaviors and the physical wellbeing of workers Disproportionate customer expectations and the physical wellbeing of workers: the mediating role of emotional labor Hostile customer behaviors and the physical wellbeing of workers: the mediating role of emotional labor

    2.4 Summary and discussion of results

    2.5. Conclusions


    3. The relationship between intensification of stress-inducing customer behaviors, job burnout, and well-being of customer service workers: the role of emotional labor types

    Andrzej Najmiec (ORCiD): 0000-0002-7712-4488

    3.1. Introduction

    3.2. Customer service work and stress research

    3.3. Job burnout

    3.4. Emotional labor

    3.5. The cultural effects of emotional labor

    3.6. Individual factors and effects of emotional labor

    3.7. Organizational factors and effects of emotional labor

    3.8. Study groups

    3.9. Method

    3.9.1. The Psychosocial Working Conditions Questionnaire

    3.9.2. The Stress-inducing Customer Behavior Scale

    3.9.3. The Oldenburg Burnout Inventory

    3.9.4. Deep Acting and Surface Acting Scale (DASAS)

    3.10. Descriptive statistics

    3.11. Results

    3.11.1. Private insurance workers

    3.11.2. Social insurance workers

    3.12. Summary

    3.12.1 The study variables and sickness absence correlation analysis

    3.13. Conclusions


    4. Health Impairment Process in Human Service Work. The Role of Emotional Demands at Work and Personal Resources

    Łukasz Baka (ORCiD: 0000-0003-1173-9874)

    4.1 Introduction

    4.2. Emotional demands in human service work

    4.3. Direct effect of job demands on depression

    4.4. Mediation effect of job burnout in job demands – depression link

    4.5. Moderation effect of personal resources

    4.6. Method

    4.6.1. Participants and procedure Measure Analytical procedure Results

    4.7. Discussion


    5. Determinants and consequences of work-related stress in personnel of residential care establishments

    Andrzej Najmiec (ORCiD: 0000-0002-7712-4488)

    5.1. Introduction

    5.2. The work of residential care establishment personnel caring for patients with various chronic mental illnesses and intellectually disabled children, adolescents or adults

    5.3. Work-related stress among workers caring for patients of residential care homes

    5.4. Study group

    5.5. Method

    5.6. Study results

    5.6.1. Health status

    5.6.2. Lifestyle

    5.6.3. Mental health status

    5.6.4. Psychosocial working conditions

    5.7. Summary of the residential home care employee group survey results

    5.7.1. Job demands

    5.7.2. Work organization and content

    5.7.3. Health and well-being

    5.8. Work-related stress management support program for the personnel of residential care establishments

    5.9. Employee addressed measures

    5.9.1. Stress management programs

    5.9.2. Promoting healthy lifestyles

    5.10. Organization-oriented activities

    5.10.1. Measures to reduce organizational limitations at work

    5.10.2. Measures to reduce the level of job demands

    5.10.3. Actions to prevent stress-inducing patient/client behavior

    5.10.4. Actions to reduce interpersonal conflicts at work

    5.10.5. Actions to strengthen job control and social support


    6. Psychosocial stressors at work and methods of stress prevention among medical staff of psychiatric and addiction treatment wards

    Anna Łuczak (ORCiD: 0000-0002-8851-1467)

    6.1. Introduction

    6.2. Medical staff in psychiatric health care

    6.3. Psychosocial stressors at work of medical staff of psychiatric wards – present research

    6.3.1. Aim of the study

    6.3.2. Method Measure Participants

    6.4. Results

    6.4.1. Emotional demands

    6.4.2. Offensive behaviors – threats of violence

    6.4.3. Lifestyle – alcohol consumption and physical activity

    6.5. Discussion of results

    6.6. Work-related stress-coping support methods

    6.7. Emotional burden-related stress prevention methods

    6.7.1. Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction training

    6.7.2. Strengthening mental resilience

    6.7.3. Emotional intelligence development training

    6.8. Aggressive patient behavior-related stress prevention methods

    6.8.1. Educational training

    6.8.2. Working environment settings

    6.9. Health and well-being

    6.9.1. Workplace health promotion

    6.9.2. Prevention of alcohol abuse

    7. Summary and conclusions



    Dorota Żołnierczyk-Zreda, PhD, Head of Laboratory of Social Psychology, Central Institute for Labour Protection – National Research Institute, Warsaw, Poland, is a senior researcher in occupational health psychology. Her research is focused on psychosocial working conditions and mental health at work, its determinants and various methods to sustain it in different groups of workers (e.g. young, older) and different occupational groups. She has extensive experience in qualitative studies and quantitative studies as well as in policy research and monitoring studies. She is also involved in national and international projects investigating different stress manage-ment interventions on both the organizational and individual levels. She is the author or co-author of approximately 60 scientific publications, including articles, chapters in monographs and textbooks, and many speeches at scientific conferences nation-ally and abroad. She is a licensed cognitive-behavioral therapist.