1st Edition

Encyclopedia of Chinese History

Edited By Michael Dillon Copyright 2017

    China has become accessible to the west in the last twenty years in a way that was not possible in the previous thirty. The number of westerners travelling to China to study, for business or for tourism has increased dramatically and there has been a corresponding increase in interest in Chinese culture, society and economy and increasing coverage of contemporary China in the media.

    Our understanding of China’s history has also been evolving. The study of history in the People’s Republic of China during the Mao Zedong period was strictly regulated and primary sources were rarely available to westerners or even to most Chinese historians. Now that the Chinese archives are open to researchers, there is a growing body of academic expertise on history in China that is open to western analysis and historical methods. This has in many ways changed the way that Chinese history, particularly the modern period, is viewed.

    The Encyclopedia of Chinese History covers the entire span of Chinese history from the period known primarily through archaeology to the present day. Treating Chinese history in the broadest sense, the Encyclopedia includes coverage of the frontier regions of Manchuria, Mongolia, Xinjiang and Tibet that have played such an important role in the history of China Proper and will also include material on Taiwan, and on the Chinese diaspora.

    In A-Z format with entries written by experts in the field of Chinese Studies, the Encyclopedia will be an invaluable resource for students of Chinese history, politics and culture.

    Introduction; A; Abahai (1592–1643); Academia Sinica; Academies ( shuyuan ); Ai Qing (1910–1996); Aidi (27 BC–1 BC r. 7–1 BC); Aigun Treaty; Aisin Gioro; Altan Khan (1508–1582); Amban; Amherst Embassy; An Lushan Rebellion (755–763); Anarchism; Ancestor worship; Andi (94–106 AD r. 106–125); Annals; Annam; Anthropology; Anti-Confucius Campaign, 1973; Anti-Japanese War (War of Resistance against Japan); Anti-Rightist Campaign; Anyang; April 5 th incident; Archaeology; Architecture, Chinese; Archives; Army; Arrow War; Autonomous Regions; Autumn Harvest Uprising; B; Ba Jin (1904–2005); Ba State; Backyard furnaces; Bai Chongxi (1893–1966); Bai Juyi (772–846); Bai Lang Rebellion; Baihua; Baimao nü; Bamboo Annals; Ban Chao; Ban Gu (32–92 AD); Ban Zhao (45-c.116 AD); Bandits; Bandung Conference; Banks; Banner system; Banpocun; Baohuang Hui; Baojia system; Barbarians; Barefoot doctors; Base areas, revolutionary; Bei Dao (1949–); Beijing Opera ( Jingju ); Beijing; Beiyang army; Beiyang Fleet; ; Big character posters ( Dazi bao ); Big Sword Society; Biography; Blue Shirts; Bo Gu (1907–1946); Bo Yibo (1908–2007); Bogue; Bohai kingdom (698–926); Bohai; Bondservants, Imperial; Bon religion; Book of History; Borodin, Mikhail Markovich (1884–1951); Boxer Rising; Braun, Otto (1900–1974); Bronze; Bronze Age; Bucharest Conference; Buddhism; Bureaucracy; C; Cadres; Cai Jing (1047–1126); Cai Yuanpei (1868–1940); Cairo Declaration; Calendars; Calligraphy; Cambodia; Canals; Cantlie, Sir James (1851–1926); Canton system (1757–1842); Cao Cao (155–220); Cao Pi (187–226); Cao Xueqin (1724–1764); Cao Yu (1910–1996); Capital cities; Capitalism, sprouts of; Castiglione, Giuseppe (1688–1766); Cathay; Catholics; Censorate; Central Asia, relations with; Ceramics; Chaha’er; Champa rice; Chan Buddhism; Chang’an; Changchun (1148–1227); Chefoo Convention; Chen Boda (1904–1989); Chen Cheng (1897–1965); Chen Duxiu (1879–1942); Chen dynasty (557–589); Chen Sheng (d. 208 BC); Chen Yi (1883–1950); Chen Yi (1901–1972); Chen Yinke (1890–1969); Chen Yonggui (1913–1986); Chen Yun (1905–1995); Cheng Hao (1032–1085); Cheng Yi (1033–1108); Chengdi (51 BC–7 BC r. 33–7 BC); Chennault, Claire (1893–1958); Chi Ch’ao-ting (1903–1963); Chiang Ching-kuo (1910–1988); Chiang Kai-shek (Jiang Jieshi) 1883–1975; China Proper; Chinese Academy of Sciences; Chinese Academy of Social Sciences; Chinese Communist Party; Chinese Eastern Railway; Chinese language; Chinese medicine; Chinese People’s Political Consultative Conference (CPPCC); Chinese Repository; Chinese Communist Youth League (CYL); Chinggis Khan (?1167–1227); Chongdi (143–145 r. 144–145); Chongqing; Chos?n; Christianity; Chu State; Chu; Civil War 1945–1949; Cixi (1835–1908); Clan or lineage organisation; Cohong; Collectivism; Comintern; Commerce; Commercial revolution; Common Programme; Communes, People’s; Compass; Compradors; Concessions, foreign; Concubinage; Confucianism; Confucius (550–479 BC); Constitution of the PRC; Constitutional movement 1901–1911; Courtesans; Cultural Revolution; Customs duties; D; Dadu; Dai Zhen (1724–1777); Dalai Lama; Dalian; Dao de jing; Daoguang Emperor (1712–1850 r. 1820–1850); Daoism; Daqing oilfield; Dawenkou; Daxing, capital; Dazhai Production Brigade; De Wang (1902–1966); Democracy Movement 1989; Democracy Wall; Democratic League; Deng Tuo (1912–1966); Deng Xiaoping (1904–1997); Deng Yingchao (1904–1992); Di Ku; Diamond Sutra; Dictionaries; Ding Ling (1904–1986); Divination; Dixie Mission; Dong Zhongshu (179? –104? BC); Donglin Academy; Dorgon (1612–1650); Dou Wan, Princess; Double Tenth; Dragon Boat Festival; Drama, modern; Drepung; Du Fu (712–770); Duan Qirui (1865–1936); Dujiangyan Irrigation System; Dunhuang; Dynastic Cycle; Dynastic histories; Dynasty; E; East India Compamy; Eastern (Later) Han dynasty (25–220 AD); Eastern Jin (317–420); Eastern Zhou (770–256 BC); Education; Education through labour; Eight Banners; Eight Immortals; Eighth Route Army; Eight Trigrams rebellion; Elder Brother Society; Embassies to China, Western; Emperor; Encirclement campaigns; Encyclopedias; Ennin (794–864); Epidemics; Erligang site; Erlitou; Eunuchs; Ever Victorious Army; Examination system; Exclusion Acts; Extraterritoriality; F; Faxian (c334–c422 AD); Famine; Fan Zhongyan (989–1052); February 28 Incident; Fei Xiaotong (1910–2005); Feng Guifen (1809–1874); Feng Xuefeng (1903–1976); Feng Youlan (1895–1990); Feng Yuxiang (1882–1948); Feng, capital city; Fengshui; Festivals; Feudal system; Fiction; Field armies of the PLA; Filial piety, Xiao; Five Anti Campaign; Five Classics; Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms, 907–960; Five elements; Five Emperors; Five Principles of Peaceful Coexistence; Five Relationships ( Wulun ); Five-year plans; Food; Footbinding; Forbidden City; Foreign Languages Press; Foreign Matters Movement; Former Kings; Former Shu dynasty 907–925; Four Books; Four Cleanups; Four Modernisations; Four olds; Fu Zuoyi (1895–1974); Fubing system; Funerary customs; Fushe movement; Fuxi; G; Galdan (1644/1632?–1697); Ganden Monastery; Gang of Four; Gao Gang (1905–1954); Gaozu (247–195 BC); Gazetteers; Gelugpa Buddhist order; Genealogies; Gentry; Gobi; Gong, King (r. 922–900 or 917–900 BC); Gong, Prince (1833–1898); Governor; Governor-general; Granary system; Grand Canal; Grand Council; Grand Secretariat; Great Wall; Great Leap Forward; Great Leap Forward, second; Great Learning; Green Gang; Green Standard Army; Guangxu emperor (reigned 1875–1908); Gu Jiegang (1893–1980); Gu Yanwu (1613–1682); Guan Hanqing (1241?–1320?); Guan Zhong (d. 645 BC); Guandi; Guandong Army; Guandong Leased Territory; Guang Wudi (5 BC–57 AD r. 25–57 AD); Guangdong Province; Guangzhou (Canton); Guangzhou commune 1927; Guangzhou Coup 1926; Guanyin (Avalokite?vara); Guanzhong; Guilds; Gunpowder; Guo Moruo (1892–1978); Guo Songtao (1818–1891); Guomindang (Kuomintang); Guoyu; Guwen , ancient script; H; Hai Rui (1514–1587); Hai Rui Dismissed from Office; Hailufeng Soviet; Hakkas; Han Chinese; Han dynasty; Han Feizi (280–233 BC); Han Mingdi (28–75 r. 58–75 AD); Han Yu (768–862); Hangzhou; Hanlin Academy; Hanshu; Hanyu pinyin; Hao, capital city; Hart, Robert (1835–1911); He Long 1896–1969; He Yingqin (1890–1987); Heaven and Earth Society; Heavenly stems and earthly branches; Hedi (25–220 AD r. 88–105); Hedin, Sven Anders (1865–1952); Hegemons, Ba; Helinge’er; Heqin system; Historiography; Hong Kong and Shanghai Banking Corporation; Hong Kong; Hongloumeng (Dream of the Red Chamber); Hong merchants; Hong Ren’gan (1822–1864); Hong Xiuquan (1814–1864); Hu Feng (1902–85); Hu Hanmin (1879–1936); Hui; Hu Jintao 1942–; Hu Qiaomu (1912–1992); Hu Shi 1891–1962; Hu Yaobang (1915–1989); Hua Guofeng 1921–2008; Huai Army; Huaihai Campaign; Huainanzi; Huandi (132–168 AD) r.146–168; Huang Chao rebellion; Huang Taopo; Huang Xing (1874–1916); Huang Zongxi (1610–1695); Huangdi (Yellow Emperor); Huangpu (Whampoa) Military Academy; Hui Shi 350–260 BC; Huidi (210–188 BC) r. 195–188 BC; Huizhou merchants; Hunan peasant movement; Hundred Days Reform Movement; Hundred Flowers Campaign; Hundred Schools of Philosophy; Hydraulic system; I; Ibn Battuta (1304–1368/69); Ili, Treaty of; Immortality; Imperial Academy; Imperial household department ( Neiwufu ); Imperial Maritime Customs; Indonesia, Chinese community in; Infanticide; Inner Asian frontiers; Inner Mongolia; Iron rice bowl; Islam in China; Islands of Immortality; J; Jade; January Storm; Japan; Japanese scholarship on China; Jardine Matheson and Co.; Jesuits; Jews, Chinese; Jia Baoyu; Jia Yi (201–168 BC); Jiang Qing (1913–1991); Jiangnan Arsenal; Jiangxi Soviet; Jiaqing Emperor (1760–1820 r. 1796–1820); Jin Aizong (1198–1234 r. 1224–34); Jin dynasty 1115–1234; Jin Feidi (reigned 1209–13); Jin Hailingwang (1122–1161 r. 1149–61); Jin Ping Mei; Jin Shizong (1123–1190 r. 1161–90); Jin state; Jin Taizong (1075–1135 r. 1123–35); Jin Taizu (1068–1123 r. 1115–23); Jin Xizong (1119–1149 r. 1135–1149); Jin Xuanzong (1163–1224 r. 1213–1224); Jin Zhangzong (r. 1190–1209); Jingdezhen; Jingdi Emperor (188 BC–141 BC r. 157–141); Jinggangshan; Jinmen (Quemoy); Jurchen; K; Kaifeng; Kalgan; Kang Youwei (1858–1927); Kang Sheng (1898–1975); Kangxi (1654–1722, r.1662–1722); Karakhitai; Karakorum; Karlgren, Bernhard (1889–1978); Karmapa Buddhist Order; Kazakhs; Key economic areas; Khanbaligh; Khitan; Khubilai Khan (1215–94 r. 1260–94); Kiakhta, Treaty of; Kingship; Koguryo; Korean War 1950–1953; Kowloon; Kowtow; Koxinga (1624–1662); Kyrgyz; L; Lama Buddhism; Land Reform; Land tax; Land tenure; Landscape painting; Lao She 1899–1966; Later Han 947–51; Later Jin 936–47; Later Liang 907–23; Later Shu 934–65; Later Tang 923–34; Later Zhou 951–960; Latin American Chinese communities; Lattimore, Owen 1900–1989; Law and the legal system; League of Left Wing Writers; Lee Teng-hui (1923–); Left Guomindang; Legalism; Legge, James (1815–1897); Lei Feng (1939–1962); Leigudun; Lelang; Lhasa; Li (ritual); Li Ao (772–841); Li Bai (701–762); Li Dazhao (1888–1927); Li Hongzhang (1823–1901); Li Ji; Li Keqiang (1955–); Li Lisan (1899–1867); Li Qingzhao 1084–1155; Li Shizhen (1518–1593); Li Si (280–208 BC); Li Yu (1611–1680); Li Zhi (1527–1602); Li Zicheng (1605–1645); Liang Qichao (1873–1929); Liang; Liao; Liao Daozong (r. 1055–1101); Liao Jingzong (r. 969–982); Liao Muzong (r. 951–969); Liao Shengzong (972–1031 r. 982–1031); Liao Shizong (919–951 r. 947–951); Liao Taizong (902–947 r. 926–947); Liao Taizu (872–926 r. 907–926); Liao Tianzuo (1075–1128 r. 1101–1125); Liao Xingzong (1016–1055 r. 1031–1055); Liaodong peninsula; Liaozhai zhiyi; Liberated Areas; Liberation, War of; Libraries; Liezi; Lin Biao (1907–71); Lin Daiyu; Lin Zezu (1785–1850); Lingdi (156–189); Literacy; Literati; Literature; Liu Bang (247–195 BC); Liu Bei (161–223); Liu Shaoqi (1898–1869); Liu Sheng (?–113 BC); Liu Song (420–479); Long March; Longmen caves; Lotus Sutra; Lu Ban (507–440 BC); Lü Buwei (291–235 BC); Lü, Empress (d.180 BC); Lu Xiangshan (1139–1192); Lu Xun (1881–1936); Lunyu; Luo Ruiqing (1906–1978); Luoyang; Lushan Conference; Lytton Commission; M; Macao; Macartney, Lord (1737–1806); Maitreya; Malaysia, Chinese community; Manchuria; Manchus; Mandarin; Mandate of Heaven; Manichaeism; Mao Dun (1896–1981); Mao Zedong (1893–1976); Marco Polo Bridge Incident 1937; Marriage; Marshall Mission 1945; Mass line; Mawangdui; May Fourth Movement; May 7th Cadre Schools; May 16th Group; May 30th incident; Mei Lanfang (1894–1961); Mei Wending (1633–1721); Mencius (c371 BC–c289 BC); Merchants; Mi Fu (1051–1107); Miao ethnic group; Middle Kingdom; Migration; Military colonies; Military; Min 907–46; Ming 1368–1644; Ming Anzong (1607–1646 r. 1644–1645); Ming Daizong (1428–1457 r. 1450–1456); Ming Guangzong (1582–1620 r. 1620–1621); Ming Huizong (1377–? r. 1399–1402); Ming Loyalists; Ming Muzong (1537–1572 r. 1567–1572); Ming Shaozong (1602–1646 r. 1645–1646); Ming Shenzong (1563–1620 r. 1573–1620); Ming Shizong (1507–1567 r. 1522–1566); Ming Sizong (1611–1644 r. 1628–1644); Ming syncretism; Ming Taizong (1360–1424 r. 1403–1424); Ming Taizu (1328–1398 r. 1368–1398); Ming tombs; Ming Wuzong (1491–1521 r. 1506–1521); Ming Xiaozong (1470–1505 r. 1488–1505); Ming Xizong (1605–1627 r. 1621–1627); Ming Xuanzong (1399–1435 r. 1426–1435); Ming Yingzong (1427–1464 r. 1436–1449); Ming-Qing transition; Mining; Minorities, ethnic/national; Missionaries; Möngke (1209–1259 r. 1251–1259); Mongolia; Mongols; Morrison, Robert (1782–1834); Moscow Conference; Mountains, sacred; Mozi (470–391 BC); Mu, King (973–923/918 BC r. ca. 976/956–923/918 BC); Mukden; Mukden Incident, 1931; Music; Muslim rebellions; Muslims; Mutual aid teams; Muye, Battle of; N; Nanchang rising; Nanchao Kingdom; Nanjing; Nanjing Arsenal; Nanjing, Rape of; Nanjing, Treaty of; Nanren; Napier mission; National minorities; National People’s Congress; National Revolutionary Army; Nationalism; Needham, Joseph (1900–1995); Neo-Confucianism; Neolithic era; Nerchinsk, Treaty of; Nestorians; New Army; New Culture Movement; New Democracy; New Fourth Army; New Life Movement; New Territories; New Text School; New world crops in China; New Youth; Newspapers; Ni Zan (1301–1371); Nian Rebellion; Nie Yuanzi (1921–); Ningxia; Nixon, President, visit to China; North China Herald; Northern and Southern dynasties; Northern Expedition; Northern Expedition, Second; Northern Wei; Numerology; Nurhachi (1559–1626); O; Observatories; Ögodei (r. 1229–1241); Old Text School; Olympic Games 2008; Opium; Opium Wars; Oracle bones; Ordos; Oriental despotism; Orthodox Church, Chinese; Ouyang Xiu (1007–1072); Overseas Chinese; P; Painting; Panchen Lama; Paper; Pearl River; Peasant associations; Peasant nationalism; Peking Man; Peng Dehuai (1898–1974); Peng Pai (1896–1929); Peng Zhen (1902–1997); People’s Liberation Army; People’s democracy; People’s Republic of China; Persian Empire; Persian language; Phagspa (1235–1280); Philosophy; Pingdi (9 BC–6 AD r. 1 BC–6 AD); Pingpong diplomacy; Poetry; Politburo; Polo, Marco (c. 1254–1324); Population; Porcelain; Port Arthur; Portuguese in China; Postal and Post Station systems; Prefects; Prehistory; Prime Minister (Premier); Printing; Production brigades; Protestant Christians; Provincial assemblies; Pure Land Buddhism; Q; Qi Baishi (1864–1957); Qi state; Qian Zhongshu (1910–1998); Qianlong (1736–95); Qin legal code; Qin Second Emperor (229 BC–6 AD r. 210 BC–207 BC); Qin Shi Huangdi (260–210 BC); Qin state; Qing 1644–1911; Qingming festival; Qiu Jin (1875–1907); Qiying 1787–1858; Qu Qiubai 1899–1935; Qu Yuan 340 BC–278 BC; Queue (pigtail); R; Railway protection movement; Rao Shushi (1903–1975); Rebellions; Rectification campaigns; Red Army; Red Eyebrows rebellion; Red Flag; Red Spear society; Red Turbans; Red and expert; Red Guards; Reform and Opening; Reform through labour; Reign periods; Religion; Ren; Renmin Ribao; Republic of China; Resist America, Aid Korea; Responsibility system; Returned Students; Revolutionary committees; Revolutionary Committee of the Chinese Guomindang; Revolutionary opera; Ricci, Matteo (1552–1610); Rites Controversy; Ritual; Roman Empire; Romanisation of the Chinese language; Ruan Yuan (1764–1849); Rulin waishi; Russia and China; Russo-Japanese War 1904–5; S; Sacrifices; Sage Emperors; Salt merchants; Salt and Iron, Discourses on; Sanguo yanyi; Sanmin zhuyi; Sanxingdui site; Schall von Bell, Adam (1591–1666); Scholar-gentry; Schools; Science; Script; Second Revolution; Secret History of the Mongols; Secret societies; Selected Works of Mao Zedong; Self-criticism; Semu; Senggelinqin (1811–1865); Sera; Seven Sages of the Bamboo Grove; Shaanxi-Gansu-Ningxia Border Region; Shamanism; Shang Yang (390–338 BC); Shang; Shangdi; Shangdu; Shanghai Coup; Shanghai; Shanhaiguan; Shanxi Merchants; Shanyuan, treaty of; Shao Yong (1011–1077); Shaodi; Shaohao; Shaolin Monastery; Shen Congwen (1902–1988); Shennong; Shen Zhou (1427–1509); Shi Dakai 1831–1863; Shigatse; Shi ji; Shimonoseki, Treaty of 1895; Shu State; Shu-Han; Shuihu zhuan; Shundi; Shunzhi emperor (1638–61); Siku quanshu; Silk; Silk Road; Silla (57 BC–935 AD); Silver; Sima Clan; Sima Guang (1019–1086); Sima Qian (c. 145 BC–c. 86 BC); Simla Convention; Single Whip tax system; Sinicization; Sino-French War (1883–1885); Sino-Japanese war 1894–5; Sino-Japanese war 1937–45; Sinology; Sino-Soviet dispute; Sino-Soviet Treaty 1950; Six Ministries; Small Swords Society; Snow, Edgar (1905–1972); Socialism in China; Socialist Education Movement; Sogdians; Son of Heaven; Song Dibing (1271–1279 r. 1278–1279); Song Duanzong (1268–1278 r. 1276–1278); Song Duzong (1240–1274 r. 1264–1274); Song dynasty (Northern Song); Song Gaozong (1107–1187 r. 1127–1162); Song Gongzong (1271–1323 r. 1274–76); Song Guangzong (1147–1200 r. 1189–1194); Song Huizong (1082–1135 r. 1100–1126); Song Qingling (1893–1981); Song Renzong (1010–1063 r. 1022–1063); Song Shenzong (1048–1085 r. 1067–1085); Song Taizong (939–997 r. 976–997); Song Taizu (927–976 r. 960–976); Song Yingxing 1587–c. 1666; Song Yingzong (1032–1067 r. 1063–1067); Song Zhenzong (968–1022 r. 997–1022); Songtsen Gampo (c. 608–649/650); Soong Dynasty; Soong Meiling (1898–2003); South Manchuria Railway Company; Southern Han 907–71; Southern Ming; Southern Ping (907–63); Southern Song; Southern Tang, 936–976; Special Economic Zones; Spring and Autumn period; Stalin, Joseph (1878–1953); Standard histories; State Council; Stein, Aurel (1862–1943); Stilwell, Joseph (1883–1946); Storytellers; Street committees; Sufan campaign; Su Shi (1037–1101); Sui dynasty (581–618); Sui law; Sui Wendi (541–604 r. 581–604); Sui Yangdi (604–617); Suiyuan; Summer Palace; Sun Quan (182–252 r. 200–252); Sun Wu (c. 535 BC–c. 470 BC); Sun Yat-sen (1866–1925); Sunzi Bingfa; T; Taiping rebellion; Taiwan; Talas River, battle of; Tan Sitong (1865–1898); Tanaka Memorial; Tang Aidi (892–908 r. 904–907); Tang dynasty (618–906); Tang Daizong (727–779 r. 762–779); Tang Dezong (742–805 r. 779–805); Tang Gaozong (628–683 r. 649–683); Tang Gaozu (566–635 r. 618–626); Tang Jingzong (809–827 r. 824–827); Tang Muzong (895–824 r. 820–824); Tang poetry; Tang Ruizong (662–716 r. 684–690 and 710–712); Tang sancai ceramics; Tang Shaodi (695/698–714 r. 710); Tang Shunzong (761–806 r. 805); Tang Suzong (711–762 r. 756–762); Tang Taizong (598–649 r. 626–649); Tang transformation tales; Tang Wenzong (809–840 r. 827–840); Tang Wuzong (814–846 r. 840–846); Tang Xianzong (778–820 r. 805–820); Tang Xianzu (1550–1616); Tang Xizong (862–888 r. 873–888); Tang Xuanzong (685–762 r. 712–756); Tang Yizong (833–873 r. 859–873); Tang Zhaozong (867–904 r. 888–904); Tangshan earthquake; Tang-Song Transition; Tanguts; Tao Yuanming (365–427); Tao Zhu (1908–1969); Taxation; Tea; Terracotta army; Theatre, traditional; Third front policy; Thirteen classics; Thought Reform; Three Antis Campaign; Three Feudatories Revolt; Three Gorges project; Three Kingdoms (220–265); Three Sovereigns; Tian’anmen; Tianjin Massacre 1870; Tianjin, Treaty of 1858; Tibet; Toba; Tomb architecture and decoration; Tongmenghui; Tongwenguan; Tongzhi (1856–1875 r.1861–1875); Tongzhi Restoration; Toyotomi Hideyoshi (1536–1598); Treaty ports; Triads; Tribute system; Tripitaka; Tuoba Wei; Twenty-One Demands; Twenty-Eight Bolsheviks; Two China Policy; Two lines; U; Uighurs (Tang to Yuan dynasties); Ulanhu (1906–88); United Fronts; Universities; Ussuri; Uyghurs; V; Vegetarianism; Verbiest, Ferdinand (1623–1688); Vereenigde Oostindische Compagnie; Veritable records; Vernacular novels; Versailles, Treaty of; Vietnam; W; Wade, Thomas Francis (1818–1895); Waley, Arthur (1889–1966); Wang Anshi (1021–1086); Wang Anshi Reforms; Wang Fuzhi (1619–1692); Wang Guowei (1877–1927); Wang Hongwen (1935–1992); Wang Jingwei (1883–1944); Wang Mang (c. 45 BC–23 AD r. 9–23 AD); Wang Ming (1904–76); Wang Shiwei (1906–47); Wang Tao (1828–1897); Wang Wei (699–761); Wang Yangming (1472–1529); Warlords; Warring States (475–221 BC); Washington conference 1921–2; Wedding rites; Wei Jingsheng (1950–); Wei State; Wei Yuan (1784–1856); Wei Zhongxian (1568–1627); Wei; Weihaiwei; Weisuo system; Well-field system; Wen, King; Wen Tianxiang (1236–1282); Wen Yiduo (1899–1946); Wendi (202 BC–157 BC r. 180–157 BC); Western (Former) Han; Western Jin; Western Liao 1124–1211; Western Wei 535–57; Western Zhou; White Lotus Sect; Women; Workers and Peasants’ Red Army; Work-study programme; Wu Cheng (1249–1333); Wu Han (1909–1969); Wu, King; Wu Liang Shrines; Wu Sangui (1612–1678); Wu State (222–280); Wu State (852–936); Wu Zhao (690–705); Wuchang uprising 1911; Wucheng culture; Wudi (156 BC–87 BC r.141–87 BC); Wuyue 907–78; X; Xi Jinping (1953–); Xia; Xiafang; Xianbi tribe; Xiandi (181–234 r. 189–220); Xianfeng (1831–1861 r. 1850–1861); Xiang Army; Xiang Yu (233–202 BC); Xi’an incident; Xianyang; Xinjiang; Xiaojing; Xixia kingdom; Ximuwang; Xin Qingnian; Xingzhonghui; Xinjiang Production and Construction Corps; Xiongnu; Xiyouji; Xu Beihong (1895–1953); Xu Guangqi (1562–1633); Xuanzang (600–664); Xuandi (91–49 BC, r. 74–49 BC); Xuantong (1906–1967 r.1908–1912); Xue Baochai; Xunzi (c. 298–238 BC); Y; Yakub Beg (1820–1877); Yalta Conference; Yangshao culture; Yan Xishan (1883–1960); Yan Fu (1854–1921); Yan’an; Yan’an Forum on Literature and Art; Yang Guifei (719–756); Yangzhou; Yangzi River; Yanjing; Yao; Yao Wenyuan (1931–2005); Yellow River; Yellow Turbans; Yelü Clan; Yelü Chucai (1189–1243); Yi; Yijing; Yin and yang; Yongle Encyclopedia; Yongzheng (1678–1735 r.1723–1735); You, King (795 BC–771 BC r.781–771 BC); Yu; Yu Dafu 1896–1945; Yuan; Yuan; Yuan Chengzong, Temür (1265–1307 r. 1294–1307); Yuan drama; Yuan Huizong (1320–1370 r.1333–1368); Yuan Mei (1716–1798); Yuan Ningzong (1326–1332 r. 1332); Yuan Renzong (1285–1320 r.1311–1320); Yuan Shikai (1859–1916); Yuan Shizu (1215–1294 r. 1260–1294); Yuan Wenzong (1304–1332 r. 1328–1332); Yuan Wuzong (1281–1311 r.1307–1311); Yuan Yingzong (1303–1323 r. 1320–1323); Yuan Youzhu (1320–1328 r. 1328); Yuandi (75 BC–33 BC r. 49–33 BC); Yue Fei (1103–1142); Yue state; Yung Wing (1828–1912); Yungang caves; Z; Zeng Guofan (1811–1872); Zhang Binglin (1869–1936); Zhang Chunqiao (1917–2005); Zhang Daoling (34–156); Zhang Guotao (1897–1979); Zhang Juzheng (1525–1582); Zhang Qian (?–114 BC); Zhang Xianzhong (1605–1647); Zhang Xueliang (1898–2001); Zhang Zuolin (1875–1928); Zhangdi (57–88 AD r. 75–88); Zhao Ziyang (1919–2005); Zhaodi (94–74 BC r. 87–74 BC); Zheng He (1371–1433); Zhidi (138–146 AD r. 145–146); Zhili; Zhongyong; Zhou; Zhou Dunyi (1017–1073); Zhou Enlai (1898–1976); Zhou Li; Zhou Yang (1908–1989); Zhou Gong (?–1032 BC?); Zhoukoudian; Zhu De (1886–1976); Zhu Xi (1130–1200); Zhu Xi and Neo-Confucianism; Zhu Yuanzhang (1328–1398 r.1368–1398); Zhuan Xu (c. 2513–2436 BC); Zhuangzi (375–300 BC); Zhuge Liang (181–234); Zizhi tongjian; Zongli Yamen; Zoroastrianism; Zunyi Conference; Zuo Zongtang (1812–1885)


    Michael Dillon is Senior Lecturer in the Department of East Asian Studies at Durham University, UK.