Endurance Time Excitation Functions
Intensifying Dynamic Loads for Seismic Analysis and Design
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Seismic assessment and earthquake-resistant design are essential applications of earthquake engineering for achieving seismic safety for buildings, bridges, infrastructure, and many other components of the built environment. The Endurance Time Method (ETM) is used for seismic analysis of simple and complex structural systems and civil engineering infrastructure as well as producing optimal and cost-effective structural and detail designs. ETM is a relatively new approach to seismic assessment and design of structures. It has developed into a versatile tool in the field, and its practical applications are expected to increase greatly in the near future.
Table of Contents
1 Introduction to the Endurance Time Method and Intensifying Dynamic Load Functions Review Concept of Endurance Time Method Applications of Endurance Time Method Implementation of the Endurance Time Method Intensifying Dynamic Load Functions Simulated Endurance Time Excitations References 2 Objective Functions for Generating Endurance Time Excitation Functions Review Second Generation of Endurance Time Excitations Third Generation of Endurance Time Excitations Fourth Generation of Endurance Time Excitations Fifth Generation of Endurance Time Excitations References 3 Optimization Variable Spaces Review Optimization Variable Space for Simulating Endurance Time Excitations Time Domain Wavelet Decomposition Increasing Sine Functions Parameter Tuning Accuracy of Excitation Simulated with the Proposed Method References 4 Generating ETEFs Based on Linear Spectra Review Simulation of “a” series Simulation of “lc” series References 5 Nonlinear Analysis-Based Endurance Time Excitation Generation Review Procedure of Simulating Third Generation Signal Representation and Optimization Algorithm Results Comparison of Dynamic Characteristics of Generated Endurance Time Excitations and Targets References 6 Generating ETEFs Considering Spectral Energy Content Review Procedure of Simulating Fifth Generation Signal Representation and Optimization Algorithm Results Comparison of Dynamic Characteristics of Generated Endurance Time Excitations and Targets Damage Spectra of Generated Endurance Time Excitations vs. Ground Motions References 7 Application of Meta-Heuristic Optimization Methods in Generating ETEFs Review Imperialist Competitive Algorithm Parameter Tuning of ICA Significance of Optimization Space and Initial Population Generating Approach Significance of Optimal Parameter in Simulating Endurance Time Excitations Comparison of Simulated Endurance Time Excitations with Targets References 8 Modifying ETEFs as an Alternative to their Generation Review Endurance Time Excitations Spectral Matching Step-by-Step Application Accuracy of Spectral Matched Endurance Time Excitations Results References 9 Generating ETEFs for Direct Response Variability Estimation Review Problem Formulation Problem Solving Simulated Excitations Seismic Response Probability Distribution Calculations Application References 10 Optimal Objective Functions for Generating ETEFs Review Generalized Objective Function Finding Optimal Objective Function Application Results References
Homayoon E. Estekanchi is a Professor of Civil Engineering at Sharif University of Technology (SUT). He received his Ph.D. in Civil Engineering from SUT in 1997 and has been a faculty member at SUT since then. He is a member of Iranian Construction Engineers Organization, ASCE, Iranian Inventors Association, and several other professional associations. His research interests include a broad area of topics in structural and earthquake engineering with a special focus on the development of the Endurance Time Method and the Value-Based Seismic Design.
Mohammadreza Mashayekhi received his Ph.D. in Civil Engineering from Sharif University of Technology (SUT) in 2018. He is an Assistant Professor of Civil Engineering at K. N. Toosi University of Technology (KNTU), Iran. He has co-authored over 30 scientific papers and is a member of Iranian Construction Engineers Organization. He spent a postdoctoral year at SUT from 2019 to 2020. In recent years, he has been the executive editor of Numerical Methods in Civil Engineering journal, an international open-access, online, peer-review journal publishing original papers of high quality related to the numerical methods in all areas of civil engineering. His contributions are in Endurance Time Method, reliability-based analysis, and optimization in civil engineering.
Hassan A. Vafai has held the position of professorship in civil engineering at different universities including Sharif University of Technology (SUT), Washington State University, and University of Arizona. He was the Founder and Editor-in-Chief of Scientia, a peer-reviewed international journal of science and technology. Throughout his professional career, he has received numerous awards and distinctions including emeritus distinguished engineer by the National Academy of Sciences, Iran; an honorary doctorate by the Senatus Academicus of Moscow Region State Institution of Higher Education; and the "Order of Palm Academiques", awarded by the Ministry of Education, Research and Technology of France.