Energy Efficiency in the Urban Environment: 1st Edition (Hardback) book cover

Energy Efficiency in the Urban Environment

1st Edition

By Heba Allah Essam E. Khalil, Essam E. Khalil

CRC Press

301 pages | 68 B/W Illus.

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pub: 2015-02-12
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Energy Efficiency in the Urban Environment is a study of energy crisis, urbanisation, and climate change, as well as a discussion of how to combat these global challenges. With a special focus on Egypt, this book addresses the macroscale of urbanism from the perspective of city dwellers’ quality of life, and explores the microscale of buildings and the perspective of ensuring indoor air quality within the boundaries of energy efficiency.

Offering an integrated view of energy systems and urban planning supported by extensive data, references, and case studies, this text:

  • Examines the energy efficiency performance of cities following sustainable urbanism principles
  • Investigates how informal areas in developing countries achieve sustainable development
  • Presents energy-efficient urban planning as a tool for improving city energy performance
  • Proposes the development of a common procedure for obtaining an energy performance certificate
  • Calculates the energy performance of buildings, accounting for heating/cooling systems and other variables

Energy Efficiency in the Urban Environment demonstrates the importance of implementing an energy performance directive to aid energy savings in large buildings and set regulations for energy-efficient designs based on standard calculation methods. This book provides engineers working with sustainable energy systems, urban planners needing information on energy systems and optimisation, and professors and students of engineering, environmental science, and urban planning with a valuable reference on energy sustainability.

Table of Contents

List of Figures

List of Tables



About the Authors

Energy-Efficient Quality of Life


Energy Efficiency Concepts, Definitions and Measures

Quality of Life as an Indicator for Human Progress

Quality of Life versus Standard of Living Concepts

Quality of Life Indices

Ecological Footprint and Human Development Index

Quality of Life and Sustainability

Quality of Life, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energies in the Built Environment

Energy Performance

Energy Efficiency Indicators

Energy Efficiency Standards

Energy Labels

Concluding Remarks


Energy Efficiency Strategies in Urban Planning of Cities


Cities and Energy Consumption: The Macrolevel


Role and Competitiveness

Cities and Energy Consumption: The Microlevel

Urban Pattern

Land-Use Distribution and Home–Work Trip

Road Network and Transportation Network

Buildings: Form, Height, and Facade Treatment

Renewable Energy

City Consumption and City Impact

Ecological Footprint

Sustainability Assessment

Roles of Stakeholders in Planning for EE

Legislations and Laws Addressing Environmental Issues


The Middle East Context

The Gulf Area




Energy-Efficient Urban Areas: Theories and Green Rating Systems


Quality of Life Is a Right

Measuring Sustainable Development

Indices to Rate Urban Agglomerations

Sustainable Urbanism Theories

NU and Smart Growth

Transit-Oriented Development

Sustainable Urbanism

Best Practices in Energy Efficiency and Sustainable Urbanism Principles

Guidelines for Egyptian Sustainable Cities



Energy-Efficient Informalisation

Introduction: Scarce Resources, Efficient Practices, Urbanisation and Sustainability

Western Urbanisation and the Call for Sustainable Urban Development

The Developing World Urbanisation: Informalisation

Informal Areas Built on Agricultural Land

Informal Areas Built on Desert Land

Informal Area Upgrading Programmes

Do Informal Areas Possess Sustainable Potentials? Is Informalisation ‘Smart’?

Defined Neighbourhood (with Quality Architecture and Urban Design)


Completeness with Daily and Lifelong Utilities

Connectedness with Integrating Transportation and Land Use

Enhancing the Quality of Life

Stakeholder Participation



Energy Generation Plants and Leakages of Energy in Urban Egypt

Conventional Power Plants


Need for Power

Characteristics of a Steam Power Plant

Classification of Power Plant Cycle

Strategic Urban Planning Programme: Lacking Energy Component

Description of SUP Processes

Building New Communities in Desert Areas

Strategic Plan Highlights



Community Involvement


Energy in Buildings

Energy-Efficient Buildings: A Challenging Era

Energy Declaration of Buildings

Energy Performance

Need for Further Development

Mathematical Simulation Tools

Arab Energy in Buildings Code


Indoor Environmental Quality




Minimum Ventilation Rates

Outdoor Air Delivery Monitoring

Filtration and Air Cleaner Requirements

Building Requirements

Thermal Environmental Conditions for Human Occupancy Comfort

Acoustical Control

Day Lighting by Top Lighting

Isolation of the Building from Pollutants in Soil

Prescriptive Option


Performance Option

Rating Systems of Energy-Efficient Buildings


Major Appliances

Summary of Energy Standards and Labelling


Low Carbon Buildings

Energy-Efficient Designs of Low Carbon Buildings


Rationale and Benefits

The Holistic Approach: Think ‘Pyramids’

Energy-Efficient Buildings

Energy Declaration of Buildings

Energy Declaration of Existing Buildings

Energy Declaration of New Buildings

Issues for International Collaboration

Concluding Remarks

New Design Practices


Comfort Levels

Air Quality

Energy-Efficient Building Design

Air-Conditioning System Design of Commercial Buildings

Evaluation Indices


Further Readings

Green Buildings



Life Cycle Assessment

Measures and Assessments

Guiding Principles for Sustainable Existing Buildings

Design Considerations and Enforcement

New Design Practices and Renewable Energy Blends

Ocean and Alternative Energies



Current Energy Leakages in Egyptian Buildings

Examples of Public and Residential Buildings

Building Blocks of a National Standards and Labelling Programme


Proposed Process

Measures and Assessments

Proposed Labels for Egypt: Major Appliances

Concluding Remarks

Laws, Codes and Standards

Building Mechanical Systems

Ventilation Controls for High-Occupancy Areas

Building Service Water-Heating Systems

Energy-Saving Equipment

Energy Auditing




Future Prospects

Continuous Urbanisation and Climate Change

Energy Efficiency and Urban Expansion

Integrating Renewable Energies into Urban Planning

Energy-Efficient Building Envelopes

Providing Integrated Solutions for Low-Income Areas Constituting Most Urbanisation Activities

Awareness Regarding Climate Change, Energy Crisis and Resource-Efficient Urbanism

Bottom-Up Approaches versus Top-Down Interventions

New Business Models of Green Economy that Support Energy-Efficient Urban Development




About the Authors

Heba Allah Essam E. Khalil holds a B.Sc (2000) in architectural engineering, M.Sc (2003) in urban planning, and Ph.D (2007) in architectural engineering from Cairo University, Egypt. Currently, she is an associate professor in the Department of Architectural Engineering at Cairo University, with 15 years of academic experience. She has pursued scientific research in various fields, including community development, participatory evaluation, informal areas development, sustainable urbanism, green rating systems, affordable housing, quality of life, and strategic planning. Dr. Khalil has additional professional experience as an architect and as an urban planner on various projects.

Essam E. Khalil holds a B.Sc (1971) and M.Sc (1973) in mechanical engineering from Cairo University, Egypt, and DIC (1976) and Ph.D (1977) from the Imperial College of Science and Technology, London University, UK. Currently, he is a professor of mechanical engineering at Cairo University (since June 1988). Dr. Khalil has more than 44 years of experience in the design and simulation of combustion chambers for terrestrial and aerospace applications. He has published more than 600 papers in journals and conference proceedings, as well as 12 books on combustion, energy, and indoor air quality control.

About the Series

Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering Series

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Subject Categories

BISAC Subject Codes/Headings:
SCIENCE / Energy
TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING / Environmental / General