1st Edition

Energy Portfolios

Edited By U. Aswathanarayana, Rao S. Divi Copyright 2009

    This book provides an overview of the globally ongoing research and development efforts to reduce carbon emissions and costs, and to improve the efficiency of emerging energy technologies. It covers current and future research and development of Coal, Oil, Natural Gas, Nuclear Power, and Renewable Energy Resources. The author provides optimal size, capital costs, powerplant operation costs and health consequences for each resource. The author delineates low-carbon emission alternatives and methods to mitigate environmental and health risks.

    List of Figures
    List of Tables
    List of Plates
    Abbreviations and Acronyms

    Section 1: Energy from coal
    1.1 Coal: Its mode of formation and economic importance
    1.1.1 Formation of coal
    1.1.2 Coal-bearing sedimentation sequences
    1.1.3 Importance of coal in the energy economy
    1.2 Carbon emissions and climate change
    1.2.1 Carbon dioxide emissions and radiative forcing
    1.2.2 Biophysical and socioeconomic consequences of Global Warming
    1.3 Coal mining technologies and the environment
    1.3.1 Opencast mining
    1.3.2 Underground mining
    1.3.3 Equipment automation
    1.3.4 Environmental impact analysis of coal mining
    1.3.5 Rehabilitation of mined land
    1.3.6 Economics of environmental protection
    1.4 Environmental impact of the coal cycle
    1.4.1 General considerations
    1.4.2 Preparation of coal
    1.4.3 Disposal of coal mine tailings
    1.4.4 Subsidence
    1.4.5 Coal dusts during the coal cycle
    1.4.6 Environmental consequences of coal use in the steel industry
    1.5 Wastes from coal industries
    1.5.1 Solid wastes
    1.5.2 Liquid wastes
    1.5.3 Emissions due to coal industries
    1.5.4 Loss of biodiversity
    1.5.5 Beneficial use of mining wastes
    1.6 Health hazards due to coal industries
    1.6.1 Dust hazards in coal mining
    1.6.2 Dust hazards in steel industry
    1.6.3 Falls and explosions
    1.6.4 Mine flooding
    1.6.5 Chemical hazards
    1.6.6 Biological hazards
    1.6.7 Mental hazards
    1.7 The way ahead
    1.7.1 Power generation technologies
    1.7.2 Solving the climate problem with current technologies
    1.8 Role of coal in the energy portfolio of South Africa
    1.8.1 South African coal in the global setting
    1.8.2 The South Africa energy scene
    1.8.3 South Africa’s coal resources
    1.8.4 Coal export industry
    1.8.5 Infrastructure
    1.8.6 The value of coal in South African economy
    1.8.8 Clean coal technologies
    1.8.9 Legislation and policy
    1.8.10 Opportunities for South African coal
    1.9 Role of coal in the energy portfolio of China
    1.9.1 Demographic, economic and political context
    1.9.2 China’s energy sector
    1.9.3 Coal resources of China
    1.9.4 Coal transport
    1.9.5 Electricity from coal-fired power stations
    1.9.6 Economics of power generation
    1.9.7 Environmental impact of the coal industry
    1.9.8 Coal and climate change
    1.9.9 Energy efficiency

    Section II: Energy from oil and natural gas
    2.1 Introduction
    2.2 World energy status
    2.2.1 Consumption and demand
    2.2.2 End-use sector
    2.3 Energy from oil
    2.3.1 Prices and consumption of oil
    2.3.2 Distribution, reserves and resources of oil
    2.3.3 Production peak and future demand for oil
    2.4 Energy from natural gas
    2.4.1 Prices and consumption
    2.4.2 Geographic distribution, reserves and resources
    2.4.3 End-use sector and carbon dioxide emissions
    2.5 Towards efficient usage of oil and natural gas in future
    2.5.1 Fuel switching
    2.5.2 End-use efficiency
    2.6 Saudi Arabia – country case study
    2.6.1 Introduction
    2.6.2 Distribution, reserves and resources
    2.6.3 Production, consumption and exports
    2.6.4 End-use sectors and carbon dioxide emissions
    2.6.5 Future scenario
    2.7 Russia – country case study
    2.7.1 Introduction
    2.7.2 Distribution, reserves and resources
    2.7.3 Production and exports
    2.7.4 End-use sectors and carbon dioxide emissions
    2.7.5 Future scenario

    Section III: Energy from the Atom
    3.1 Nuclear power
    3.1.1 Radiation units
    3.1.2 Fissile and fertile radioactive isotopes
    3.1.3 Uranium resources
    3.1.4 Thorium resources
    3.1.5 Three-stage development of nuclear power in India
    3.2 Disposal of uranium mill tailings
    3.2.1 Introduction
    3.2.2 Mineralogy and geochemistry of uranium mill tailings
    3.2.3 Environmental impact of uranium mines and mill tailings
    3.2.4 Acid Mine Drainage (AMD)
    3.2.5 Modeling of contaminant impact
    3.2.6 Conclusion
    3.3 Spent nuclear fuel
    3.3.1 Nuclear Fuel Cycles
    3.3.2 Nuclear Fuel Fabrication
    3.3.3 Radioactivity of Spent Nuclear Fuel
    3.3.4 Structure and Composition of the Spent Nuclear Fuel
    3.3.5 Behaviour of SNF in a geologic repository
    3.3.6 Natural Fission Reactors of Oklo, Gabon, West Africa
    3.3.7 Neptunium Mobility and its implications for SNF disposal
    3.4 Vitrification of radioactive wastes
    3.4.1 Geological issues relevant to the siting of waste repositories
    3.4.2 High-level wastes immobilized in glass
    3.4.3 Geochemical considerations in the fabrication of waste glass
    3.4.4 Long-term stability of nuclear wastes glass
    3.4.5 Glass – water reactions
    3.4.6 Modeling of alteration mechanisms
    3.4.7 Immobilization of waste actinides in ceramic
    3.4.8 Single phase waste forms
    3.5 Radiation hazards
    3.5.1 Radiation from rocks
    3.5.2 Radon risk
    3.5.3 Biogeochemical cycling of radioactive pollutants
    3.5.4 Meltdown
    3.5.5 Chernobyl reactor accident
    3.5.6 Epilogue
    3.6 Future of nuclear power
    3.6.1 Resource position
    3.6.2 Cost of nuclear power
    3.6.3 Projected nuclear power capacity
    3.6.4 Reactor designs
    3.6.5 Pebble-bed reactors
    3.6.6 R&D areas
    3.7 Role of Nuclear power in India’s energy security
    3.7.1 Introduction
    3.7.2 India’s energy resource base
    3.7.3 History of development of nuclear power in India
    3.7.4 Future plans – Nuclear reactors planned & capacity buildup
    3.7.5 Safety management in Indian nuclear power plants
    3.7.6 Merits of nuclear power
    3.7.7 Techno-economic aspects of production of Nuclear power – investments and tariffs
    3.7.8 Conclusions
    3.8 Role of Nuclear power in the energy portfolio of Japan
    3.8.1 Endowment of uranium and thorium resources of Japan
    3.8.2 Present and projected consumption of nuclear energy per capita in relation to the primary energy sources in the energy mix
    3.8.3 Technologies to improve the production of electricity from uranium, investments (per kWe) and fuel costs (per kWh) of the present and projected nuclear energy
    3.8.4 Hazards, risks, safety, policy, management, etc. of nuclear industry
    3.8.5 Health impacts of radiation environment (quality of air, water, soil, etc.) of the projected nuclear energy use
    3.8.6 Implications of the projected nuclear energy use on GDP per capita and quality of life

    Section IV: Renewable energy resources
    4.1 Hydropower
    4.1.1 Introduction
    4.1.2 Hydropower facilities
    4.1.3 Pumped storage hydroelectricity
    4.1.4 “In-river” small-scale hydropower projects
    4.1.5 Resources and costs
    4.2 Geothermal and ocean energy
    4.2.1 Introduction
    4.2.2 Costs
    4.2.3 Research & Development
    4.2.4 Ocean energy
    4.3 Wind energy
    4.3.1 Introduction
    4.3.2 Projected growth of wind power
    4.3.3 Technology and cost developments
    4.3.4 Market overview
    4.3.5 Environmental factors
    4.3.6 Offshore wind power
    4.4 Biomass and Bioenergy
    4.4.1 Introduction
    4.4.2 The Brazilian experience with ethanol
    4.5 Solar energy
    4.5.1 Introduction
    4.5.2 Photovoltaics
    4.5.3 PV technology
    4.5.4 Concentrated Solar Power (CSP)

    Section V: QUO VADIS?
    5.1 Global energy security
    5.1.1 Introduction
    5.1.2 Demographic assumptions
    5.1.3 Macroeconomic assumptions
    5.1.4 Per capita GDP, energy use and carbon dioxide emissions
    5.1.5 ACT and Blue scenarios
    5.1.6 Decarbonising the different sectors
    5.1.7 Energy efficiency trends
    5.1.8 Research & Development, demonstration and deployment
    5.1.9 Key roadmaps for sustainable energy future
    5.2 Carbon Dioxide Capture and Storage
    5.2.1 Overview
    5.2.2 Economics and technological status of carbon dioxide capture and storage
    5.2.3 Underground geological storage
    5.2.4 Processes and pathways for release of CO2 from geological storage sites
    5.2.5 Potential hazards to human health and safety
    5.2.6 Risk management
    5.2.7 Legal issues
    5.3 Nuclear power in France: a success story
    5.3.1 Introduction
    5.3.2 French scientific tradition regarding nuclear science
    5.3.3 From 1945 to 1973: “The glorious thirty years”
    5.3.4 The first generation of nuclear plants
    5.3.5 Reacting to the first oil shock
    5.3.6 From 1974 to 2000: The French “quantitative” nuclear programme
    5.3.7 A comprehensive systemic approach to nuclear power
    5.3.8 Preparing for the renewal of the PWR fleet
    5.3.9 2001: Enters AREVA
    5.3.10 Conclusion

    Author index
    Subject index
    Colour plates


    U. Aswathanarayana (General Editor) has extensive experience in teaching, research and development and in institutional capacity building in many countries. He has published various books on natural resources, food, water and environmental matters, in which a variety of techno-socio-economic approaches were focused on the core theme. He is the recipient of the Excellence in Geophysical Education (2005) and International Awards (2007) of the American Geophysical Union, Certificate of Recognition (2007) of the International Association of GeoChemistry, and Eminent Citizen Award in the area of Water Sciences (2007) of the Sivananda Trust, India.

    Rao S. Divi (Section 2), worked as a Research Scientist at the Geological Survey of Canada in the seventies, where he received international recognition for his contributions in Geostatistics and Tectonics. Subsequently, for many years he taught in Saudi Arabia and Kuwait, where he obtained extensive knowledge of the various aspects of oil and natural gas.