1st Edition

Energy Recovery from Municipal Solid Waste by Thermal Conversion Technologies

By P. Jayarama Reddy Copyright 2016
    256 Pages
    by CRC Press

    256 Pages
    by CRC Press

    This book presents an overview of the technology that allows millions and millions of tons of municipal solid waste generated globally to be perceived as an asset which, after materials recovery for recycling, can be used to generate clean power, transport fuels that can substitute fossil fuels, and value-based chemicals with minimal environmental impact. It also explains how hazardous wastes and sewage sludge can be treated and disposed of without affecting human and environmental health. It does so by providing a full discussion of established thermal conversion technologies generating heat, electricity, liquid fuels and useful chemicals from solid waste. Featuring case studies describing worldwide waste-to-energy plants in successful operation, it offers highly suited supporting material for an introductory course on waste thermal conversion processes.

    1 Waste Generation & Management
    1.1 Introduction
    1.2 Waste generation
    1.3 MSW management system
    1.3.1 Waste hierarchy
    1.3.2 Recycling & energy recovery
    1.3.3 Markets for secondary materials
    1.3.4 Global policy trends
    1.3.5 Municipal waste, a source of clean energy
    1.3.6 Energy-from-Waste technologies

    2 Combustion Technology
    2.1 Introduction
    2.2 Benefits & issues
    2.3 Chemistry of combustion
    2.4 Efficiency of combustion
    2.5 Process stabilization & combustion control
    2.6 MSW incinerator systems
    2.6.1 Grate technology
    2.6.2 Fluidized bed combustion technology
    2.6.3 Refuse-derived fuel combustion
    2.6.4 Suppliers of the facilities

    3 Pollutants and Residues from Thermal Treatment
    3.1 Introduction
    3.2 Formation of pollutants
    3.3 Flue gas cleaning/control systems
    3.3.1 Particle (PM) removal
    3.3.2 Gaseous contaminants removal
    3.3.3 Heavy metal and dioxin/furan removal
    3.3.4 Nitrogen Oxide Removal
    3.3.5 Spray Drying Absorption (SDA)
    3.3.6 Dry sorbent injection
    3.3.7 Moisture condensation in gas cleaning systems
    3.4 New developments in flue gas cleaning
    3.4.1 Alstom’s NID (Novel Integrated Desulfurization) system
    3.4.2 Lurgi Lentjes Circoclean process
    3.4.3 Combined scrubbing process by Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe
    3.5 Energy & water consumption
    3.6 Management of residues
    3.6.1 Treatment & use of bottom ash
    3.6.2 Treatment and use of APC residue

    4 Pyrolysis and Gasification Technologies
    4.1 Introduction
    4.2 Pyrolysis
    4.2.1 Pyrolysis reactors
    4.2.2 Investigations on pyrolysis of MSW
    4.2.3 Plusses and minusses of the process
    4.2.4 Utilization of the process products
    4.2.5 Commercial scale pyrolysis plants
    4.3 Gasification
    4.3.1 Conventional gasification
    4.3.2 Chemical reactions in gasification
    4.3.3 Key factors for gasification of waste
    4.3.4 Gasifier configurations Fixed bed gasifiers Fluidized bed gasifiers Slagging gasification
    4.3.5 Performance criteria
    4.3.6 Tar content in syngas
    4.4 Plasma gasification
    4.4.1 Plasma arc gasifier
    4.4.2 Alter NRG/Westinghouse plasma gasification process
    4.4.3 Example of a thermal plasma facility
    4.4.4 Plasma technology for treatment of incinerator residues & hazardous waste
    4.4.5 Issues with plasma arc gasification
    4.5 Commercial status of gasification
    4.6 Gasification plants in operation
    4.7 Energy recovery from plastics
    4.7.1 Recycling of plastic waste
    4.7.2 Thermal decomposition of plastics
    4.7.3 Technologies for energy recovery from plastic waste Laboratory-scale pyrolytic gasification technique Laboratory-scale pyrolysis of segregated plastic waste Demonstration-level liquid fuels production from plastic pyrolysis Production of gaseous fuel
    4.7.4 Commercial systems
    4.7.5 Fuel properties of pyrolytic oils

    5 MSW thermal conversion plants: Case Studies
    5.1 AEB, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
    5.2 Isseane power plant, Paris, France
    5.3 Zabalgarbi plant (Sener-2), Bilbao, Spain
    5.4 Riverside plant, Belvedere, London, UK
    5.5 Case studies from Japan
    5.6 Allington energy from waste facility, Kent, UK
    5.7 CHP waste-to-energy plant, Reno-Nord, Aalborg, Denmark
    5.8 Waste incineration plant, Arnoldstein, Austria
    5.9 The Mainz waste-to-energy plant, Germany
    5.10 Indaver integrated MSW treatment plant, Doel (near Antwerp), Belgium


    Dr. P. Jayarama Reddy is an energy consultant to the solar photovoltaic industry and serves as a board member of several international renewable energy companies related to solar module fabrication, power generation from biomass and municipal solid waste. He is a retired professor of Physics (Sri Venkateswara University, Tirupathi, India) and has worked in various big research laboratories at Cornell University (US), Imperial College London (UK), Charles University (Czech Republic), and Stuttgart University (Germany). Dr. Reddy is a Fellow of the Institute of Physics (UK) and has published a number of papers on polycrystalline thin film solar materials and cells, as well as the books Science and Technology of Photovoltaics, published by BS Publications / CRC Press/Balkema, and Solar Power Generation and Clean Coal Teechnologies for Power Generation, published by CRC Press/Balkema.

    This text by Dr. Jayarama Reddy details the myriad technologies developed over the years to thermally process municipal solid waste (MSW) streams for power generation. It is an excellent assembly of the specifics of the numerous technologies developed and deployed for thermal conversion of MSW for power applications ranging from traditional combustion to advanced plasma and pyrolysis. […] Engineers, designers, inventors and students would do well to closely examine and absorb the information provided to fully understand the intricacies and nuances associated with such a challenging subject as the thermal conversion of MSW for power applications. The information provided here should serve as a study guide for those interested in developing such systems to avoid the failures of the past.

    Professor Marco J. Castaldi, Ph.D., Department of Chemical Engineering & Director, Earth Engineering Center, City College, City University of New York, New York, NY.


    I believe engineers, designers, researchers and students will derive benefit from reading and absorbing the information provided in this book. The information provided here can also serve as a useful guide to a consultant or a policy maker or those engaged in the waste-to-energy area.

    Professor Dezhen Chen, Director of Thermal & Environmental Institute, Tongji University, China.