Energy Resources: Availability, Management, and Environmental Impacts, 1st Edition (Hardback) book cover

Energy Resources

Availability, Management, and Environmental Impacts, 1st Edition

By Kenneth J. Skipka, Louis Theodore

CRC Press

485 pages | 25 B/W Illus.

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pub: 2014-04-22
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Description

The Energy Problem

Energy Resources: Availability, Management, and Environmental Impacts identifies historical increases in demand and a continuing lack of viable management policies for regional and global energy problems. Considering the state and consumption of energy resources on a worldwide level, the authors outline and address three primary issues that they view as growing concerns: the exploitation of current forms of energy, the environmental consequences, and the social and economic ramifications involved.

The initial chapters offer an overview of energy management, providing an introduction to energy, energy-related engineering principles, regulations, energy conservation, and sustainability. The book discusses all energy resource forms from fossil fuels to renewable resources. The authors introduce an energy matrix providing an analytical structure that quantitatively can be used to evaluate resource options and their impacts.

The concluding chapters provide insight into the driving forces that have shaped energy policy to date and the uncertainties that face future policymakers. The book analyzes various aspects of energy management. It poses concerns and offers solutions, including a proposed approach for developing, organizing, and implementing a national energy plan for the U.S.

A Template for Developing an Energy Policy

  • Examines the issues involved with energy management
  • Explores the best options for achieving energy independence
  • Provides quantitative approaches to energy policy development
  • Discusses specific structural and analytical approaches to solving energy management problems

The book considers conservation and the development of new, less expensive energy forms, and the impact these can make in slowing growth in demand while fueling efficiency. It analyzes the availability of traditional energy resources and a method of quantifying their energy, economic, and environmental impacts to provide adequate, inexpensive, long-term energy supplies. It also examines the feasibility of solar power, wind, tidal, geothermal, nuclear, and other less traditional sources of energy.

Reviews

"Congratulations to both authors for this contribution to energy management literature. In addition to providing an outstanding review of the energy resources available, they have proposed an energy plan that has the potential of solving the dysfunctional state of our nation’s energy problem. Their plan successfully removes the past negative impacts of regulatory, political, regional, etc., self-serving interests currently impeding the development of an implementable energy plan. The quantification of the pros and cons of all the major contributors to energy resource assessments is another positive feature."

––Rita D'Aquino, Technical Editorial Consultant (Former Editor of CEP magazine)

"This book provides a broad spectrum of topics in the energy discussion. From fundamental energy principles (e.g. first law of thermodynamics) to energy management and policy, this book is an excellent resource for the energy professional."

––James Patrick Abulencia, Ph.D., associate professor, Department of Chemical Engineering, Manhattan College, New York, USA

"Skipka and Theodore have brought to life and made very understandable the present energy management dilemma facing society. I was particularly happy to see the chapters on environmental implications and economic considerations included as I believe these must be a particular focal point of any energy policy."

—Anthony J. Buonicore, P.E., BCEE, QEP, Chief Executive Officer, Buonicore Partners, Inc

Table of Contents

Section I Basic Principles

Introduction to the Issues

Introduction

Energy Terms

Conservation Law for Energy

Enthalpy

Heat Transfer

Net Energy Analysis

Developing a National Energy Policy

Short Term

Long Term

References

Thermodynamic Principles: Entropy Analysis

Introduction

Qualitative Review of the Second Law

Describing Equations

The Heat Exchanger Dilemma

Applications

Concluding Comments

References

Energy Demand

Introduction

Early History

The First Humans

The Industrial Revolution

Recent Years

Effect of Demand of Energy Resources

Coal

Oil

Natural Gas

Oil Shale

Nuclear Energy

Solar

Hydroelectric

Geothermal

Canada

Energy Needs

Energy Resources

Tar Sands

Future Energy Demands

Concluding Remarks

References

Sustainability and Green Science/Engineering

Introduction

Sustainability

Historical Perspective

Resource Limitations

Sustainable Development Considerations

Resources for Sustainability

Future Trends

Green Science/Engineering

Introduction to Green Chemistry

Introduction to Green Science/Engineering

Green Chemistry versus Green Engineering

Green Resources (Internet Sources)

References

Energy Regulations

Introduction

The Regulatory System

Laws and Regulations: The Differences

The Role of the States

The Department of Energy (DOE)

The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC)

Energy Information Administration (EIA)

The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)

The 2013 New York State Energy Plan

Overview of New York’s State Energy Plan

References

The Modern Energy Matrix: An Overview

Introduction

Energy System Components

Resources

Production

Transportation/Transmission

Coal

Oil

Natural Gas

Utilization

Energy Matrix Overview

References

Section II Energy Resources: Fossil Fuels

Coal

Introduction

Early History

Availability/Distribution and Characterization

Availability/Distribution

Characterization

Extraction, Processing, and Transportation/Transmission

Extraction

Processing

Transportation/Transmission

Environmental Issues

Future Prospects and Concerns

References

Oil

Introduction

Early History

Availability/Distribution and Characterization

Availability/Distribution

Characterization

Extraction, Processing, and Transportation/Transmission

Extraction

Processing

Transportation/Transmission

Pipelines

Ships

Trains

Environmental Issues

Future Prospects and Concerns

References

Natural Gas

Introduction

Early History

Availability/Distribution and Characterization

Availability/Distribution

Characterization

Extraction, Processing, and Transportation/Transmission

Extraction

Processing

Transportation/Transmission

Environmental Issues

Future Prospects and Concerns

References

Shale Oil

Introduction

Early History

Availability/Distribution and Characterization

Extraction, Processing, and Transportation/Transmission

Extraction

Processing

Transportation/Transmission

Environmental Issues

Future Prospects and Concerns

References

Tar Sands

Introduction

Early History

Availability/Distribution and Characterization

Availability/Distribution

Characterization

Extraction, Processing, and Transportation/Transmission

Extraction

Processing

Transportation/Transmission

Environmental Issues

Future Prospects and Concerns

References

Section III Other Energy Resources

Solar Energy

Introduction

Early History

Availability, Distribution, and Characterization

Availability

Distribution

Characterization

Extraction, Processing, and Transportation/Transmission

Extraction

Processing

Transportation/Transmission

Environmental Issues

Future Prospects and Concerns

References

Nuclear Energy

Introduction

Early History

Availability/Distribution and Characterization

Availability/Distribution

Characterization

Extraction, Conversion, and Transportation/Transmission

Extraction and Conversion

Transportation/Transmission

Environmental Issues

Waste Disposal

Plant Accidents/Safety

Radiation Effects

Future Prospects and Concerns

References

Hydroelectric Energy

Introduction

Early History

Availability/Distribution and Characterization

Availability/Distribution

Characterization

Extraction, Processing, and Transportation/Transmission

Extraction

Processing

Transportation/Transmission

Environmental Issues

Future Prospects and Concerns

References

Wind Energy

Introduction

Early History

Availability/Distribution and Characterization

Availability/Distribution

Characterization

Extraction, Processing, and Transportation/Transmission

Extraction

Processing

Transportation/Transmission

Environmental Issues

Future Prospects and Concerns

References

Geothermal Energy

Introduction

Early History

Availability/Distribution and Characterization

Availability/Distribution

Characterization

Extraction, Processing, and Transportation/Transmission

Extraction

Processing and Transportation/Transmission

Environmental Issues

Future Prospects and Concerns

References

Hydrogen Energy

Introduction

Early History

Availability/Distribution and Characterization

Availability/Distribution

Characterization

Extraction, Processing, and Transportation/Transmission

Extraction

Processing

Transportation/Transmission

Environmental Issues

Future Prospects and Concerns

References

Biomass Energy

Introduction

Early History

Availability/Distribution and Characterization

Availability/Distribution

Characterization

Refuse/Municipal Solid Waste (MSW)

Wood

Hazardous Wastes

Biofuels

Extraction, Processing, and Transportation/Transmission

Extraction

Processing

Transportation/Transmission

Environmental Issues

Future Prospects and Concerns

References

Other Energy Sources

Introduction

Fuels Derived from Coals and Oils

Coke

Coal Char and Liquids

Gaseous Fuels from Coal

By-Product Gas from Gasification

Coal–Water Mixture

Hydrocarbons

Hydrokinetic Energy

Tidal Energy

Ocean Thermal Energy

Wave Energy

References

Section IV Aspects of Energy Management

Energy Demand and Distribution Systems

Introduction

The Evolution of Energy Demand

Energy Stakeholders

The Role of Distribution Systems

References

Conservation, Sustainability, and Green Engineering

Introduction

Energy Conservation

Chemical Plant and Process Applications

Domestic Applications

Cooling

Heating

Hot Water

Cooking

Lighting

New Appliances

Individual Efforts

Sustainability Approaches

Domestic Level

Green Engineering

Buildings

Materials

Architects

Insulation

Ducts and Piping

Maintenance

Reduced Loads

Concluding Remarks

References

Environmental Considerations

Introduction

Environmental Management Topics

Environmental Factors

The Health Risk Evaluation Process

The Hazard Risk Assessment Process

Concluding Remarks

References

Economic Considerations

Introduction

Definitions

Simple Interest

Compound Interest

Present Worth

Evaluation of Sums of Money

Uniform Series of Payments

Depreciation

Fabricated Equipment Cost Index

Capital Recovery Factor

Present Net Worth

Perpetual Life

Break-Even Point

Approximate Rate of Return

Exact Rate of Return

Bonds

Incremental Cost

Capital Costs

Operating Costs

Energy Cost Data

Oil

Coal

Natural Gas

Renewables

Nuclear Energy

Hidden Economic Factors

Project Evaluation and Optimization

Principles of Accounting

Concluding Remarks

References

Political Considerations

Introduction

The Political Problem Associated with Natural Resource Wealth

Energy Politics

References

Challenges Facing Future Energy Policy Makers

Introduction

Present Energy State

Energy Sources of the Future

Some Policy Suggestions for the Future

Incentives

Environmental Protection

Unnecessary Use of Energy

Capital Needs

Applying the Concept of Net Energy

Societal Concerns

Energy Forecasts for New York State and Canada

New York State Plan

Canadian Plan

Concluding Remarks

References

Section V Energy Management Solutions

Introduction to Energy Policy Issues

Introduction

Energy Policy Priority

Is Energy Independence a Legitimate Goal?

The Responsibility of Government

Concluding Comments

References

Energy–Environmental Interactions

Introduction

US Energy–Environmental Policy Issues

General Overview/Comments

Net Energy Concepts

Interaction with Other Goals

Environmental Concerns: A Technological Mandate

Individual State Energy Policies

Global Energy Policies

References

Quantitative Analysis of Energy Management Options

Introduction

Energy Resource Comparison Procedure

Energy Resource Comparative Analysis: United States (2015–2025)

Energy Resource Comparative Analysis: Developed Nations

(2015–2025)

Energy Resource Comparative Analysis: Underdeveloped Nations

(2015–2025)

References

Solving the Energy Management Policy Challenge

Introduction

Public or Private Control

Management Approach

The Tasks at Hand

Design Considerations for an Energy Management Plan

Phase 1—Structural Elements

Phase 2—Team Organization and Leadership

Phase 3—Establish Goal and Objectives

Phase 4—Analytics

Phase 5—Implementation Strategy

Phase 6—Critical Reviews

Factors for Consideration in Developing Energy Policy

References

Epilogue

Index

About the Authors

Kenneth Skipka received a BA degree in natural sciences from Long Island University and an MS in meteorology from Cornell University. In 1986 Mr. Skipka, along with three partners, founded RTP Environmental Associates, Inc. (RTP), an environmental consulting firm specializing in air, water, and solid waste issues for a variety of industries, particularly the power industry. He is currently a principal with RTP Environmental Associates, Inc.; owner of the IT Leasing Company; and, a long-standing member of the Air & Waste Management Association (AWMA). He has authored, collaborated on, and/or published numerous books, technical reports, and papers.

Louis Theodore received the degrees of MChE and EngScD from New York University and a BChE from The Cooper Union. Over the past 50 years, Dr. Theodore was a successful educator (holding the rank of full professor of chemical engineering), graduate program director (raising extensive financial support from local industries), researcher, professional innovator, and communicator in the engineering field. He has authored 98 text/reference books, over 100 technical papers, and is the author of the recent CRC Press/Taylor & Francis Group risk assessment text Environmental Health and Hazard Risk Assessment: Principles and Calculations.

About the Series

Energy and the Environment

Learn more…

Subject Categories

BISAC Subject Codes/Headings:
SCI024000
SCIENCE / Energy
TEC009010
TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING / Chemical & Biochemical
TEC031010
TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING / Power Resources / Alternative & Renewable
TEC031030
TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING / Power Resources / Fossil Fuels