1st Edition

Engineering Geophysics

Edited By Anna Bondo Medhus, Lone Klinkby Copyright 2023
    324 Pages 118 Color Illustrations
    by CRC Press

    Engineering Geophysics connects onshore geotechnical engineering challenges to the geophysical methods that may be applied to solve them. Unknown geological conditions are a risk in construction projects, and geophysical information can help to identify those risks. The book answers questions on how, why, and when the individual and combined methods provide the results requested. Flowcharts guide the reader to geophysical methods that can be applied for various engineering challenges, and the solutions are illustrated with practical case histories.

    The book is intended mainly for geotechnical engineers and geologists but also for geophysicists or managers in need of an overview or brushup on geophysical methods and their practical applications. In addition, it can be used by educational institutions in courses both for geotechnical engineers and geologists.

    1. Introduction.
    Lone Klinkby & Anna Bondo Medhus

    2. Scope of Work.
    Anna Bondo Medhus & Lone Klinkby

    3. Relationship between geotechnical and geophysical methods.
    Michael Long

    4. Gravimetric Methods.
    Olivier Francis

    5. Magnetometer Methods.
    Joanna Hamlyn

    6. Direct current resistivity methods.
    Douglas W. Oldenburg, Seogi Kang, Lindsey J. Heagy & Michael Maxwell

    7. Electromagnetic methods.

    Niels Bøie Christensen

    8. Ground Penetrating Radar.
    Matteo Rossi

    9. Reflection Seismic Methods.
    Richard D. Miller

    10. Seismic Refraction Methods.
    Colin A. Zelt

    11. Surface Waves Methods.
    Julian Ivanov

    12. Case: Mapping potential Unexploded Ordnance (UXO).
    Joanna Hamlyn

    13. Case: Geophysical investigation to delineate landfill.
    Joanna Hamlyn

    14. Case: 3D GPR in the inner yard at Frederiksborg Castle.
    Ole Frits Nielsen & Søren Wedel Nielsen

    15. Case: Mapping of utilities when developing at an old coal storage facility.
    Peter Thomsen

    16. Case: Near surface electromagnetic survey to support the design of urban development plans.
    Peter Thomsen

    17. Case: Archaeological Investigation to identify a Romano-British farmstead using magnetic gradiometry.
    Joanna Hamlyn

    18. Case: Integrated Geophysical survey to locate buried structures.
    Joanna Hamlyn

    19. Case: Total field magnetometry to locate buried foundations.
    Joanna Hamlyn

    20. Case: Utility mapping with GPR at Copenhagen Harbour.
    Ole Frits Nielsen & Søren Wedel Nielsen

    21. Case: Thickness of peat and depth to bedrock for road construction using Ground Penetrating Radar.
    Jaana Gustafsson

    22. Case: Multidisciplinary geophysical investigation for a new railway track in Norway.
    Roger Wisén, Anders Almholt & Fredrik Olsen

    23. Case: Road maintenance and ground frost.
    Jaana Gustafsson

    24. Case: Depth to bedrock detection by integration of Airborne EM data with sparse geotechnical drilling data for early phase road alignment.
    Craig W. Christensen, Guro H. Skurdal, Andi A. Pfaffhuber & Martin Panzner

    25. Case: Delineation of Aggregates Gravels, Sands, and Silts using Electrical Resistivity Tomography.
    Chris Phillips

    26. Case: Delineation of Material Type for Use in Ready-mix Concrete.
    Barry Balding

    27. Case: Mapping Railroad Ballast and Geology using Ground Penetrating Radar.
    Jaana Gustafsson

    28. Case: Assessing Loose Soils for Tower Cable Anchors using Electrical Resistivity.
    Fern Webb

    29. Case: Delineation of Soft Soils and Bedrock Depth using integrated methods.
    Michael Maxwell

    30. Case: High-definition bedrock depth and conditions for urban construction project site evaluation in Switzerland using seismic refraction with combined GRM and tomographic approach.
    Pier Vittorio Radogna, Christophe Vergniault & David Dupuy

    31. Case: Paleo-channel investigation for seepage pathway potentials.
    Daniel E. Kramer

    32. Case: Near-surface electromagnetic survey to support the design of climate adaptation in urban development plans.
    Peter Thomsen

    33. Case: Geophysical investigation of slope stability using Electrical Resistivity Tomography, Seismic Refraction, and Surface Waves.
    Joanna Hamlyn

    34. Case: Integrated geophysical investigation to map a landslip.
    Joanna Hamlyn

    35. Case: Mapping of quick clay risk by Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT).
    Torleif Dahlin

    36. Case: Quick clay volume delineation based on AEM resistivity, geotechnical soundings, and lab samples.
    Craig W. Christensen, Andi A. Pfaffhuber, Guro H. Skurdal & Martin Panzner

    37. Case: Depth to bedrock and weak zone detection for tunnel design under water passages.
    Torleif Dahlin, Mathias Ronczka & Roger Wisén

    38. Case: 3D model of depth to bedrock for a new train tunnel under the capital of Norway.
    Fredrik Olsen, Anders Almholt & Roger Wisén

    39. Case: Screening for ground risk ahead of tunnel design and construction activities.
    James Russell & Edward Cox

    40. Case: Geometrical complex ground model for large industrial construction sites: Ultra-High-Resolution with shear waves –  Qualification flow and application.
    Pier Vittorio Radogna & Christophe Vergniault

    41. Case: Identifying weakness zones and geological boundaries across tunnel alignments using airborne electromagnetics.
    Anne H. Rasmussen, Giselle M. Linares, Craig W. Christensen & Martin Panzner

    42. Case: Delineation of Soil Type, Dam Leakage, Underground Voids, and Water Flow in Tunnels.
    Michael Maxwell, Robert Eso & Brodie Klue

    43. Case: Pre-investigations for horizontal directional drilling in Copenhagen.
    Ole Frits Nielsen, Søren Wedel Nielsen & Søren Stricker Mathiasen

    44. Case: Mapping depth to bedrock along a planned cable route.
    Bo Bergman, Daniel Juul Okholm & Anders Edsen

    45. Case: Mapping bedrock profiles for cable landings using seismic refraction and surface waves (MASW).
    Joanna Hamlyn

    46. Case: Lake bottom investigations with Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR).
    Jaana Gustafsson

    47. Case: Pre-investigations for pipeline crossing of a stream.
    Ole Frits Nielsen, Søren Wedel Nielsen & Søren Stricker Mathiasen

    48. Case: Delineation of Palaeokarst Features Under a Proposed Tailings Facility Using ERT, Seismic Refraction, and Micro-Gravity.
    Barry Balding

    49. Case: The Identification of Leaks in Tailings Storage Facility Impoundment Dam Walls using ERT and IP.
    Barry Balding

    50. Case: Groundwater vulnerability assessment for new motorway using ERT.
    Torleif Dahlin, Elisabet Hammarlund & Roger Wisén


    Anna Bondo Medhus holds a Ph.D. in seismology from the Department of GeoScience, Aarhus University, 2010. In her current position at Energinet, Anna works with pre-investigations related to energy transmission projects and renewable energy. Anna was a researcher and research program manager at VIA University College (2018-2022) in the Center of Applied Research and Development in Building, Energy and Environment (Horsens, Denmark). She managed research projects mainly related to pre-investigation for urban development projects and in collaboration with several partners like consultancy companies, and utilities. She developed and taught a course in geophysics for engineering students, which provided insight on the needs of engineers and how to teach students from other professions. From 2010 to 2018 Anna was employed in COWI as a specialist in applied geophysics working with site investigations for various construction and foundation projects in nationwide and international project groups. She was leading work on optimizing data access and data management throughout COWIs geoscience, groundwater, and geotechnical groups. Anna has always had a focus on the dissemination of knowledge with a keen eye for the interest, needs and starting point of the audience. Her art is to make difficult topics easily understandable without compromising on facts.

    Lone Klinkby holds a PhD in deep reflection seismics from the Department of Earth Sciences at the University of Aarhus, 1998. Currently Lone works in COWI as Project Director and Business Development Director within Energy and Geoscience. From 2008-2011 she worked within Research and Development at Vattenfall with a focus on deep CO₂storage demonstrations projects in Denmark and Germany. Further, she participated in international scientist projects and networks on CO₂storage guidance and monitoring. Former positions include research on reservoir geophysical data at the Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland (1998-2005). COWI is an international consulting group within the engineering disciplines of energy, buildings, infrastructure, and environment. Lone is part of a group of geophysicists and geologists working across departments in close connection with COWIs geotechnical groups. Since 2011 she has worked with applied geophysics for projects related to deep and shallow foundations both on- and offshore. She is an active participant in international project groups and her work includes leading combined projects on pre-investigations and for establishing decision foundations for the transition toward renewable energy. Lone work in the interface between professions and strive for increasing interpersonal understanding for the benefit of the projects.