Engineering Hydrology of Arid and Semi-Arid Regions: 1st Edition (Paperback) book cover

Engineering Hydrology of Arid and Semi-Arid Regions

1st Edition

By Mostafa M. Soliman

CRC Press

411 pages | 172 B/W Illus.

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Paperback: 9781138114449
pub: 2017-06-14
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Description

The natural scarcity of water in arid and semiarid regions, aggravated by man-made factors, makes it difficult to achieve a reliable water resources supply. Communities in these areas pay the price for thousands of years of water manipulation. Presenting important insight into the complexities of arid region hydrology, Engineering Hydrology of Arid and Semi-Arid Regions explores the key components for formulating and implementing integrated management approaches in catchment (wadi) systems.

The book introduces the engineering hydrology of arid and semi-arid regions, covering meteorological processes and hydrology. The author discusses precipitation and precipitation losses, catchment characteristics, and runoff estimation methods. He also examines streamflow measurements and hydrographs, flood routing, and groundwater hydrology, including the basic equations of groundwater flow and analytic solutions describing flow aquifers, pumping tests, and salt water intrusion. Building on this foundation, the book then delineates sediment yield in watersheds and streams and the design of hydraulic structures for protection and management of water resources systems. It includes case studies, conversion tables, and modeling software.

During the last two decades, research efforts and networking have enhanced the state of knowledge about arid and semi-arid areas, especially watershed and catchment systems. Pulling this information together into a comprehensive resource, this book provides a better understanding of wadi hydrology, capacity-building processes, water education and training, and institutional development. This understanding can then be used to select the appropriate tools to support water management and optimize the sustainable use of water resources.

"When the well is dry, we learn the worth of water"

— Benjamin Franklin

Reviews

"… thorough and detailed presentation of basic and advanced concepts of the field of hydrology interwoven with both theoretical and practical engineering applications specific to arid and semi-arid … a thoughtful and well-organized textbook that is suitable for upper-level bachelor’s and master’s-level engineering students and practicing geologic and engineering professionals alike."

Carbonates Evaporites, 2011

Table of Contents

Introduction

General Remarks

Engineering Hydrology for Arid and Semiarid Regions

Hydrologic Cycle

Hydrologic Systems

Wadi Hydrology

Modeling

References

Bibliography

Meteorological Processes and Hydrology

Introduction

Solar and Earth Radiations

Temperature

Humidity

Wind

Climate Change

References

Precipitation

Introduction

Forms of Precipitation

Measurement of Precipitation

Precipitation Gauge Network

Interpretation of Precipitation Data

Average Precipitation over an Area

Design Storms

References

Suggested Reading

Precipitation Losses

Introduction

Evaporation

Empirical Evaporation Equations

Estimation of Evaporation by Analytical Methods

Reservoir Evaporation and Methods for Its Reduction

Evaporation and Transpiration

Interception

Surface Retention Loss

Recommended Methods for Estimating Rainfall Losses

Measurement of Infiltration

Infiltration Indexes

References

Catchment Characteristics and Runoff

Introduction

Catchment Characteristics

Estimation of Runoff

References

Stream Flow Measurement

Introduction

Measurement of Stages

Flow-Measuring Structures

References

Stream-Flow Hydrographs

Introduction

Characteristics of the Hydrograph

Hydrograph Separation

The Unit Hydrograph Concept

Derivations of Unit Hydrographs from Simple Hydrogaphs

Derivation of Unit Hydrograph from Complex Storms

Unit Hydrographs for Various Durations

Synthetic Unit Hydrographs

Hydrograph of Overland Flow

References

Bibliography

Flood Routing

Introduction

Hydraulic Routing Techniques

Hydrologic Routing Techniques

Case Study: Flood Routing for the HighAswan Dam Reservoir

References

Groundwater Hydrology

Introduction

Distribution of Subsurface Water

Groundwater Flow Theories

Hydraulics of the Well and Its Design

SLUG Tests

Groundwater Recharge

Application

Groundwater Pollution

References

Sediment Yield from Watersheds

Introduction

Sediment-Yield Theories

Reservoir Sedimentation

References

Hydraulic Structures

Introduction

Crossing Works

Control and Storage Works

References

Bibliography

Case Studies

Case Study 1 Water Resources Management in Wadi Naghamish at the North Coastal Zone of Egypt

Case Study 2 Urbanization Impacts on the Hydrological System of Catchments in Arid and Semiarid Regions

Case Study 3 Runoff Simulation Using Different Precipitation Loss Methods

Case Study 4 Design of Salboukh Flood Control System, in Riyadh City, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

Appendix A: Conversion Tables

Appendix B: Glossary

Appendix C: Statistics and Stochastic Analysis in Hydrology

Appendix D: A Simplified Model for Hydrograph Development in Arid and Semiarid Regions

Index

Subject Categories

BISAC Subject Codes/Headings:
SCI026000
SCIENCE / Environmental Science
TEC010030
TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING / Environmental / Water Supply