Engineering Materials : Research, Applications and Advances book cover
1st Edition

Engineering Materials
Research, Applications and Advances

ISBN 9781482257977
Published November 13, 2014 by CRC Press
636 Pages 177 B/W Illustrations

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Book Description


Introduces Emerging Engineering Materials

Mechanical, materials, and production engineering students can greatly benefit from Engineering Materials: Research, Applications and Advances. This text focuses heavily on research, and fills a need for current information on the science, processes, and applications in the field. Beginning with a brief overview, the book provides a historical and modern perspective on material science, and describes various types of engineering materials. It examines the industrial process for emerging materials, determines practical use under a wide range of conditions, and establishes what is needed to produce a new generation of materials.

Covers Basic Concepts and Practical Applications

The book consists of 18 chapters and covers a variety of topics that include functionally graded materials, auxetic materials, whiskers, metallic glasses, biocomposite materials, nanomaterials, superalloys, superhard materials, shape-memory alloys, and smart materials. The author outlines the latest advancements, including futuristic plastics, sandwich composites, and biodegradable composites, and highlights special kinds of composites, including fire-resistant composites, marine composites, and biomimetics. He also factors in current examples, future prospects, and the latest research underway in materials technology.

  • Contains approximately 160 diagrams and 85 tables
  • Incorporates examples, illustrations, and applications used in a variety of engineering disciplines
  • Includes solved numerical examples and objective questions with answers

Engineering Materials: Research, Applications and Advances serves as a textbook and reference for advanced/graduate students in mechanical engineering, materials engineering, production engineering, physics, and chemistry, and relevant researchers and practicing professionals in the field of materials science.

Table of Contents

Introduction to Some Recent and Emerging Materials

Historical Perspective of Materials

Different Types of Engineering Materials

Scale of Materials and Size of Devices

Requirements of Materials

Present Scenario of Advanced Materials

Recent Advances in Materials Technology

Smart Materials (or Intelligent Materials)

Shape Memory Alloys

Advances in Smart Materials


Functionally Graded Materials

Introduction to Biomedical Materials


Peculiar Materials with Fascinating Properties

Introduction to Auxetic Materials

Metallic Glasses


Intermetallic Compounds and Intermediate Compounds

Emerging High-Pressure Materials and Technologies for the Future


Amorphous Materials and Futuristic Scope of Plastics

Introduction to Organic Materials

Difference between Monomers and Polymers

Degree of Polymerization

Additives in Polymers

Various Types of Plastics and Their Applications

Polymeric Fibres

Mechanical Behaviour of Plastics



Behaviour of Polymers under Different Situations

Recent Advances and Futuristic Scope of Plastics

Photorefractive Polymers


Structures and Applications of Ceramics, Refractories and Glasses, etc

Ceramic Materials

Types of Ceramics


Silica and Silicates

Applications of Ceramics

Mechanical Behaviour of Ceramics

Electrical Behaviour of Ceramics

Processing of Ceramics

Particulate Forming Processes


Types of Glasses

Perovskite Structures (or Mixed Oxides)


Clays and Clay-Based Ceramics

Chemically Bonded Ceramics

Applications of Ferroelectrics

Polymeric Composite Materials: Types and Mechanics


Laminated Composites

Reinforced Composite Materials

Particulate Composites

Flake Composites

Whisker-Reinforced Composites

Hybrid Composites

Sandwich Composites

Advantages and Limitations of Composites

Various Types of Fibres and Their Aspect Ratio

Configurations of Reinforcing Fibres

Various Matrix Materials

Mechanics of Composite Laminates

Rule of Mixture for Unidirectional Lamina

Generalized Hooke’s Law and Elastic Constants

Applications of Composite Materials

Stress–Strain Behaviour of Fibres, Matrix and Composites

Basic Composite Manufacturing Methods

Review Questions

Numerical Problems


Sandwich Composite Materials, and Stitched and Unstitched Laminates


Types of Sandwich Core Materials

Types of Face (Skin) Materials for Sandwich Constructions and Their Characteristics

Sandwich Composite in Special Applications

Current Fields of Research in Sandwich Composites/Constructions

Recent Advances

Experimental Studies on Mechanical Behaviour of Stitched and Unstitched Glass/Epoxy Fibre–Reinforced Laminates

Literature Review


Results and Discussion



Biocomposite Materials

Biodegradable Plant Fibre-Reinforced Composite

Advantages and Disadvantages of Plant Fibre Composite

Different Types of Plant Fibres for Green Composite

Contribution of Plant Fibre–Based Green Composite for Various Applications

Starch-Based Composites

Starch as a Green Material

Starch: History, Characteristics and Structure

Biopolymers/Biodegradable Polymers for Use as Matrix of the Composite

Starch as a Source of Biopolymer (Agropolymer)


Classification of Starch-Based Biocomposites


Special Kinds of Composites

Composites for Marine Applications

Fire-Resistant Composites

Eco-Friendly Fireproof High-Strength Polymer Cementitious Composites

Composite Materials in Alternative Energy Sources


Biomimetics and Biomimetic Materials



Spider Silk

Likely Applications of Spider Silk

Biomimetic Robot: Chemistry, Life and Applications

Shark Skin Effect

Snake Scales

Gecko Effect

Tread Effect

Wear-Resistant Surfaces

Lotus (or Self-Cleaning) Effect

Biomimetic Human Joints

Development of Hydrobiomimetic-Inspired Biomimetic Materials and Their Novel Applications

Design of Micro–Robot Fish Using Biomimetic Fin

Shark Skin–Inspired Biomimetic Drag-Reducing Surfaces

Seashell-Inspired Design of Grid Shell Roof Covering

Dolphin Sound Wave–Inspired Sonar Technology

Reptile-Inspired Biomimetic Materials and Their Novel

Gecko Feet–Inspired Biomimetic Products and Materials

Viper as a Model in Its Defence

Chameleon-Inspired Colour-Changing Clothes

Snake-Imitating Robot to Overcome the Problem of Balance

Robot Scorpion Can Work in Harsh Desert Conditions

Development of Insect-Inspired Biomimetic Materials and Their Novel Applications

Moth Eye–Inspired Biomimetic Materials

Termite-Inspired Biomimetic Materials

Stenocara: A Water Capturing Insect

Mosquito Bite–Inspired Biomimetic Materials




Superhard Materials


Brinell Hardness Test

Rockwell Hardness Test

Vickers Hardness Test

Introduction to Superhard Cutting Tool Materials

Present Trends in Machining

Recent Developments in Superhard Materials

Comparison between the Properties of Diamond and Osmium

Materials in Nonconventional Machining Processes

Current Researches and Futuristic Trends



Advances in Powder Metallurgy


Operations Involved in Powder Metallurgy

Methods of Powder Production

Powder Production

Chemical Methods of Producing Powder


Electrolytic Deposition Method

Atomization Method of Powder Production

Powder Conditioning (or Treatment)

Fabrication Methods of Products from Powder

Compaction of Metal Powders


Applications of Powder Metallurgy

Advantages and Disadvantages of Powder Metallurgy

Manufacturing of Cemented Carbide by Powder Metallurgy

(Sintering) Method

Comparison Between Conventional and Powder

Metallurgy Methods

Recent Advances in Powder Metallurgy


Trends in the Development of Ferrous Metals and Alloys, and Effects of Alloying Elements on Them

Classification of Steels and Cast Irons

Cast Iron

Grey Cast Iron

Other Cast Irons

Wrought Iron

Alloys, Alloying Elements and Their Effects

Effects of Alloying Elements on Steels

Alloy Steels

Stainless Steels (or Corrosion-Resistant Steels)

Maraging Steel

Nickel Alloys

Heat-Resisting Alloys


Cryogenic Steels (or Extremely Low Temperature Purpose Alloys)

Tool and Die Steels

Special Purpose Alloy Steels

Some Common Steel Alloys

Overheated and Burnt Steel

Temper Brittleness: Its Causes and Remedies

Recent Non-Ferrous Metals and Alloys

Non-Ferrous Metals and Alloys

Other Non-Ferrous Metals

Emerging and Futuristic Materials

Introduction to FGMs

FGMs in Construction Applications

Functionally Graded Fibre-Reinforced Concrete

Functionally Graded Fibre Cement

Processing of the FGM Cement Composites

Functionally Graded Particulate Composite for Uses Structural Material

Epoxy–TiO Particulate-Filled Functionally Graded



Functionally Graded Nanoelectronic, Optoelectronicand Thermoelectric Materials

Applications of CNT in FGM

FGM in Optoelectronic Devices

FGM Thermoelectric Materials

Thermoelectric Materials



Special Materials in Specialized Applications

Materials for Pumps and Valves in Various Industries

Materials in Robots

Materials for Rocket and Missile

Materials in Safety System against Explosion and Fire (or Fusible Alloys)

Metals and Alloys for Nuclear Industry

Criteria for Selection of Acidic and Alkaline-Resistant Materials

Superheavy Elements

Material Identification of Common Industrial Components

Important Properties and Main Uses of All Known Elements

Electronic Systems/Materials Used to Telecast a Cricket Match from Cricket Field to Worldwide Televisions

Vivid Fields of Ongoing Researches

Palmyra Fibre Extraction, Processing and Characterization

Development and Characterization of Natural (Palmyra) Fibre–Reinforced Composite

Development and Characterization of Human Hair–Reinforced Composite

Development and Characterization of a Novel Biohybrid Composite Based on Potato Starch, Jackfruit Latex and Jute Fibre

Experimental Investigation of the Behaviour of Dual Fibre Hybrid Composites under Different Stacking Sequences

Fabrication and Experimental Investigation of the Behaviour of a Novel Dual Green Fibre Hybrid Composite with Different Compositions of the Material System

Development and Characterization of Banana Fibre–Reinforced Rice–Potato Biocomposites

Development and Characterization of a Jute–Cane Dual Green Fibre Hybrid Composite


Trends in the Research of Natural Fibre–Reinforced Composites and Hybrid Composites

Bamboo Fibre–Reinforced Composites

Banana Fibre–Reinforced Composites

Betel Nut Fibre–Reinforced Composites

Cellulose Fibre–Reinforced Composites

Date Palm Fibre–Reinforced Composites

Hemp Fibre–Reinforced Composites

Jute Fibre–Reinforced Composites

Kenaf Fibre–Reinforced Composites

Keratin Fibre–Reinforced Composites

Other Natural Fibre–Reinforced Composites

Silk Fibre–Reinforced Composites

Sisal Fibre–Reinforced Composites

Other Fibre-Reinforced Composites


Recent Researches and Developments of Magical Materials

Porous and Foam Materials

Max Phase Materials

Superplastic Materials

High-Temperature Metals and Alloys

Nanostructured Materials

Nanostructured Materials for Renewable Energy Applications

Emerging Scope of Hybrid Solar Cells in Organic Photovoltaic Applications by Incorporating Nanomaterials



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Dr. K.M. Gupta is a professor in the Department of Applied Mechanics, Motilal Nehru National Institute of Technology, Allahabad, India. He earned his diploma in mechanical engineering (Hons), bachelor of engineering (AMIE) in mechanical engineering and ME (Hons) in 1977. He earned his PhD from the University of Allahabad. His research interests are in the fields of materials science, composite materials, stress analysis, and solid mechanics. Professor Gupta has authored 28 books, and 120 papers, and is the editor-in-chief of two journals, The International Journal of Materials, Mechanics and Manufacturing(IJMMM), and International Journal of Materials Science and Engineering (IJMSE).


"The present text can be indisputably considered as extensive resource for contemporary teaching and research work at both undergraduate and graduate level. … The text is well-organized, up-to-date, informative, enlightening, filled with valuable tables, graphs, references, suggested readings, illustrations and numerical questions with answers at the end of each chapter for further learning. Author has seriously attempted the formidable task of including essentially all types of materials that can be used for various applications and their properties in a single text."
—Manish A. Kewalramani, Abu Dhabi University, UAE

"The main strength of the material is the inclusion of a very wide range of newer and emerging materials which are of great interest to undergraduate and post-graduate students. Students pursuing research will also be benefitted by it. ... The book has been presented in a simple language. A large number of figures and tables have provided good support to the manuscript. Useful data are given for reference purposes. In general, the book can be considered a very good book."
—Rakesh Mathur, Motilal Nehru National Institute of Technology Allahabad, India