At some time 30% of the world’s land mass was covered by glaciers leaving substantial deposits of glacial soils under major conurbations in Europe, North and South America, New Zealand, Europe and Russia. For instance, 60% of the UK has been affected, leaving significant glacial deposits under major conurbations where two thirds of the population live.
Glacial soils are composite soils with significant variations in composition and properties and are recognised as challenging soils to deal with. Understanding the environment in which they were formed and how this affects their behaviour are critical because they do not always conform to classic theories of soil mechanics.
This book is aimed at designers and contractors working in the construction and extractive industries to help them mitigate construction hazards on, with or in glacial deposits. These soils increase risks to critical infrastructure which, in the UK includes the majority of the road and rail network, coastal defences such as the fastest eroding coastline in Europe and most of the water supply reservoirs.
It brings together many years of experience of research into the behaviour of glacial deposits drawing upon published and unpublished case studies from industry. It draws on recent developments in understanding of the geological processes and the impact they have upon the engineering properties, construction processes and performance of geotechnical structures. Unlike other books on glaciation it brings together all the relevant disciplines in earth sciences and engineering to make it directly relevant to the construction industry.
Table of Contents
Chapter 1 Introduction
1.3 Engineering glacial soils
1.4 Glacial Soil
1.5 The evolution of glacial geology
1.6 ‘The past is the key to the present‘
1.7 ‘Glacial soils are the most variable of all soils’
1.8 ‘We know more about the stars above us than the soils beneath our feet’ (Leonardo da Vinci, c 1600)
Chapter 2 Glacial Geology
2.2 Glacial Soils
2.2.2 Primary Deposits
220.127.116.11 Subglacial Traction Till
18.104.22.168.2 Deformation Till
22.214.171.124.3 Lodgement Till
126.96.36.199.4 Comminution Till
188.8.131.52 Melt Out Till
2.2.3 Secondary Deposits
184.108.40.206 Glaciofluvial Deposits
220.127.116.11 Glacial Sedimentation
18.104.22.168.1 Glaciolacustrine Deposits
22.214.171.124.2 Glaciomarine Deposits
2.3 Glacial Landforms
2.3.1 Subglacial Landforms Formed by Ice
126.96.36.199 Rogens (ribbed moraines)
2.3.2 Subglacial Landforms Formed by Water
2.3.3 Ice Margin Moraines
188.8.131.52 Push Moraines
184.108.40.206 Dump Moraines
220.127.116.11 Ablation Moraines
2.3.4 Glaciofluvial Ice Marginal Landforms
2.4 Glacial Land systems
2.5 Glacial Dynamics
2.5.1 Glacier Movement due to Substrate Deformation
2.5.3 Friction and Sliding
2.6 Subglacial Deformation
2.6.1 Hydraulic Conditions
2.6.3 Local Deformation
Chapter 3 Ground Investigation
3.2 Design of a Ground Investigation
3.3 Desk Study
3.4 Site Reconnaissance
3.5 Preliminary Investigation
3.6 The Main I
Barry G. Clarke is Professor of Civil Engineering Geotechnics at the University of Leeds, UK and past president of the Institution of Civil Engineers.
"I know that this one is a book I shall acquire and use... it is a book that merits reading from cover to cover.
It was a delight to see a book on engineering that recognizes the important role of geological processes in forming soils, therefore explaining their properties and behavior."
-- Eddie Bromhead, retired professor and consulting engineer
"This authoritative and well referenced book contains a wealth of information about glaciation, glacial geology and the engineering aspects of construction on and in glacial deposits."
-- John Hudson, Imperial College, London and past president International Society of Rock Mechanics