1st Edition

Enterprise Architecture for Digital Business Integrated Transformation Strategies

By Tushar K. Hazra, Bhuvan Unhelkar Copyright 2020
    312 Pages 50 B/W Illustrations
    by Auerbach Publications

    312 Pages 50 B/W Illustrations
    by Auerbach Publications

    312 Pages 50 B/W Illustrations
    by Auerbach Publications

    Enterprise Architecture (EA) is an essential part of the fabric of a business; however, EA also transcends and transforms technology and moves it into the business space. Therefore, EA needs to be discussed in an integrated, holistic, and comprehensive manner. Only such an integrated approach to EA can provide the foundation for a transformation that readies the business for the myriad enterprise-wide challenges it will face. Highly disruptive technologies such as Big Data, Machine Learning, and Mobile and Cloud Computing require a fine balance between their business and technical aspects as an organization moves forward with its digital transformation. This book focuses on preparing all organizations – large and small – and those wishing to move into them for the impact of leveraging these emerging, disruptive, and innovative technologies within the EA framework.

    Part A – Digital Business - Setting the Context (What and Why of DEA or Digital Enterprise Architecture)



    What is Digital Business?            

    Digitization Landscape and Opportunities           

    Contemporary digital technologies and their impact of Digital Transformation

    Evolution of Architectures in Organizations

    Digital Transformation Imperative          

    Challenges and Risks in Digital Transformation  

    Architecture and Business Organizations             

    Big Data and Artificial Intelligence           

    Data Friction     

    Enterprise Architecture (EA) in Digital Transformation   

    EA as a Transformational Framework     

    Internet of Things (IoT), Internet of Everything (IoE) and Digital Business

    Enterprise Architecture and Business Architecture          



    Enterprise Architecture (EA) as a Transformational Framework  

    Enterprise Architecture in Digital Transformation            

    Enterprise architecture elements and digital transformation       

    Capturing the technology baseline.        

    Exploring the constraints and risks upfront.        

    Influencing the business objectives.       

    Automating the broken or disparate business processes.

    Embracing emerging technologies.         

    Capitalizing on the operating model of the business.      

    TOGAF and Zachmann EA Frameworks

    Enterprise Architecture’s Technology Stack         

    Layers of the Enterprise Technology Stack           

    Layer 1: Communications (Networks and Infrastructure)

    Layer 2: Data Storage (SQL and NoSQL) 

    Layer 3: Analytics & Services Machine Learning  

    Layer 4: Business Processes & Applications         

    Layer 5: Presentations and Visualization (User Interfaces) and IoT Devices             

    Security Architecture (All Layers)            

    Services Oriented Architecture  

    "Service" in SOA             

    Services Landscape       

    Shared Services

    Operational Services     

    Customer Service           

    Knowledge Worker Services       

    Synchronization of Services        

    Service-Orientation and Business            

    Business Driven SOA

    Agility in Digital Business            

    Change Management in Digital Transformation 



    Planning for a Data-Driven Digital Business         

    Digital Business Strategies          

    Inputs to Strategic Planning for Digital Business

    Strategy for Digital Transformation – focus is on Customer Experience    

    Objectivity in Developing Digital Strategies         

    Elements of Digital Business Strategies

    Strategies Relate Projects to Capabilities to Goals            

    Business Capabilities     

    Business Strategies and Enterprise Architecture

    Architectures and Digital Strategies

    Sources and Digital Strategies    

    Knowledge Customer    

    Knowledge Worker Services       

    Big Data             

    Sensors (IoT)    


    Machine Learning          

    Social Media     

    Mobile Application        

    Making Digital Strategy Work    

    Digital Business Strategy and Planning   

    Enterprise Architecture Resources and Constraints         

    Capabilities and Services             

    Project Implementation



    Digital Business is Collaborative Business            

    Physical collaboration   

    Electronic collaboration

    Mobile collaboration    

    Complexities of Collaborative Digital Business    

    Business processes        

    Enterprise IT governance            

    Collaborative technologies         

    Communication networks          

    Evolving Technology Trends and EA

    Collaborative EA             

    Key Elements of Collaborative EA            

    Strategies for Collaborative EA  

    Challenges and Issues with Collaborative EA       

    Deploying a Collaborative EA     

    Portals and Collaborative EA      

    Practical Steps and Models for Collaborative Enterprise Architectures with MDA    

    Charting a Road Map for Collaborative EA Deployment  

    Observations from the Trenches             

    Managing User Expectations     

    Formulating effective use of federated portals   

    Achieving consensus on Web services standards

    Incorporating value propositions from grid computing concepts


    Part B – Strategizing [Creating, Planning and Realizing] Digital Enterprise Architecture - How to go about it? [lifecycle of DEA] How and When should DEA be done?   


    Chapter 5: Cloud Capabilities in Digital Transformation  

    Cloud and the Enterprise Architecture (EA)         

    Cloud Characteristics for Digital Business            

    Four phases of Cloud Adoption through Enablement and Corresponding business value  

    Cloud Adoption

    Cloud Transition            

    Cloud Deployment        

    Cloud Enablement         

    Three Synergistic Areas of EA and Cloud

    EA governance and the Cloud    

    EA measurement and maturity for the Cloud      

    From strategy formulation to solution deployment.        

    Embedding Analytics in Cloud-based Digital Processes    

    Lessons learnt in Practice            

    Challenges in Using Cloud-based Architecture    


    User interfaces 

    Shifting Enterprise computing to the Cloud         

    Open source development         

    Control and ownership 

    Privacy and confidentiality         



    Business Processes and Digital Transformation  

    Business process reengineering (BPR)    

    Business process automation (BPA)        

    Business process analysis (BPAn)             

    Business process integration (BPI)          

    Business process improvement (BPIm)

    Business performance management (BPrM)

    Business process management (BPM)    

    Business process outsourcing (BPO)       

    Business process optimization (BPOp)

    BPIm scenarios

    Business Process Digitization

    Holistic Approach to Business Process Transformation   

    The Principles of Digitizing Business Processes   

    Maintaining transformation.     

    Monitoring Progress     

    Evaluating Industry Trends         

    Capability assessment and development

    Organizational change

    Governance and management


    Preparing for Process Transformation   

    Commercial Vendors & Tools    



    Agility in Digital Business            

    Agile as a Business Value            

    Advantages of Agility and Big Data for a Digital Business

    Envisioning an Agile Organization           

    Functioning Agile Business with Embedded Big Data Analytics

    Holistic, Fine Granular and Sensitive Business    

    Big Data Enables Agility in Business Dimensions

    External Influencing Factors       

    Internal factors and responses  

    CAMS: Balancing Agility with Formality in Big Data adoption       

    Agile Principles in Practice          

    Collaborations and Intelligence as Functioning Agile        

    Reaching Collaborative Intelligence in Agile Business      

    Reaching Collaborative Business Process             

    Ongoing Knowledge Synchronization in a Learning Agile Organization     

    Holistic Customer – the ultimate goal of Business Agility


    Part C – Leveraging the value of DEA for Internal Organization(Organize, Socialize and Institutionalize)   



    Why to consider EA as a Practice in Digital Business?

    The Realities of EA Practice        

    Seven Principles of EA as a Practice         

    A Life Cycle of a consistent EA practice  

    The EA Practice Lifecycle             

    Four Focus Areas           

    Actions by EA Practice in Digital Transformation

    Managing EA as a Practice          

    System Integration Lifecycle Roadmap

    Major Challenges in EA as a Practice

    EA Practice Maturity

    Five Simplified Levels of EA Practice Maturity     

    Empowering the Practice – seven essential steps


    Establishing Enterprise Architecture Metrics

    Making a Case for EA metrics in Digital Transformation

    Identifying EA Metrics Parameters

    Relevance of EA metrics to Digital Transformation

    Getting the EA Metrics Right

    What should an EA metrics have?           

    Formulating the EA Metrics        

    Model for Establishing the EA Metrics    

    Circumstances surrounding EA metrics formulation        

    Active Matrix Monitoring Model

    Governance of EA Metrics

    Who – the EA team

    What – quantitative & qualitative measures       

    When – to perform governance activities            

    How – capture the metrics         

    Challenges in applying EA Metrics in Practice      

    Establishing the “Right” EA Metrics         

    Discussion Topics           



    EA Governance and DT

    The Business Situation  

    Advantages of GRC in EA and DT              251

    Key Factors in EA and Governance          

    Organizational Structure             

    Charter for EA Governance        

    Roles and Responsibilities          

    Principles, Guidelines and Standards for EA governance 

    Enterprise Architecture Framework & Governance Function        

    Navigation Elements     

    Navigation Element Definitions 

    The Navigation Repository         

    Pragmatic EA Governance Structure       

    Architecture Review & Governance Boards


    CHAPTER 11:– Business Architecture Practice: Case Study in Health domain

    Business Architecture   

    The BA Practice

    Challenges, Issues, and Concerns            

    Establishing the BAP: Stage by Stage      

    Stage 1: Building the Practice     

    Stage 2: Enabling the Practice    

    Stage 3: Managing the Practice 

    Stage 4: Realizing the Practice   

    Realities of the BAP: From the Trenches

    Practical observations and lessons learned         

    Actions Taken   

    Best Practices in BAP     

    Governance, Risk Management and Compliance

    General Comments and Recommendations        

    Future Prospects of the BAP      


    APPENDIX-A: Use cases in EA and Digital Business           




    Back Matter


    Author Profile – Tushar Hazra

    Tushar Hazra is an Executive level Enterprise Architect with over twenty (20+) years of experience.  He is a successful and recognized thought leader – actively involved in digital transformation of organizations architecting and implementing enterprise-level business solutions from facilitation of strategy, blueprint, roadmap, and strategic initiative planning to business solution delivery.

    As Principal of EpitomiOne, Dr. Hazra has been actively involved in designing, developing, and delivering mission-critical, patient-centric, innovative, and cost-effective IT solutions across the US federal, state, and local government agencies as well as in private healthcare organizations (payers and providers). Tushar has a proven track record in aligning IT with business goals through planning, prioritization and implementation. 

    During his professional career, Tushar has demonstrated C-level executive partnership, technical thought leadership, program management, P&L responsibility and health IT system engineering domain expertise.  He has successfully leveraged emerging technologies such as social media, cloud computing, big data analytics, Internet of Things, and mobile computing.


      Dr. Bhuvan UNHELKAR


    Dr. Bhuvan Unhelkar

    Professor of Information Technology; Principal IT/Business Consultant)

    Dr Bhuvan Unhelkar (BE, MDBA, MSc, PhD, FACS) has extensive strategic and hands-on professional experience in the Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) industry. He is a full Professor and lead faculty of IT  at the University of South Florida Sarasota-Manatee (USFSM), and is the founder and Consultant at MethodScience and PlatiFi. He is also an adjunct Professor at Western Sydney University, Australia and an honorary Professor at Amity University, India . His current industrial research interests include AI and ML in Business Optimization, Big Data and business value and Business Analysis in the context of Agile. Dr. Unhelkar holds a Certificate-IV in TAA and TAE, Professional Scrum Master – I,  SAFe (Scaled Agile Framework for Enterprise) Leader and is a Certified Business Analysis Professional® (CBAP of the IIBA).

    "From the Board and the executive, through operations, to out-sourced functions, technologies like artificial intelligence, machine-to-machine learning, and Big Data Analytics along with cloud services are transforming business. Knowledge worker services are being automated, increased information dependencies are seen, risk profiles revised, markets changing, and cost savings to be had. To make these integrated changes, a strategic but pragmatic incremental approach with the necessary governance, organizational change, and architecture is used. It is in the pragmatics of architecture against strategy in which this book brings an integrated approach to transformation."

    -Keith Sherringham, EY