This first volume includes scientific sources that were foundational in the professionalization of science and in the development and dissemination of scientific thinking as it moved towards evolutionary thought, including emerging ideas in biology, botany, zoology, anatomy, natural theology, and geology. The volume is comprised of specialist and popular science, and because science was becoming increasingly internationalised, particularly significant and influential overseas sources have been included. The volume includes extracts from works by Rev. Gilbert White, Baron Cuvier, William Paley, Jean-Baptiste Lamarck, Rev. William Buckland, Charles Waterton, Charles Lyell, Richard Owen, Louis Agassiz, Roderick Murchison, Alexander von Humboldt, Henry Sedgwick, Hugh Miller, Patrick Mathew, Robert Chambers, John Ruskin, and Philip Gosse.
Table of Contents
Environment and Ecology in the Long Nineteenth-Century
Edited by Mark Frost
Vol I: Scientific and Professional Perspectives on Environment, 1789–1858
Introduction to Volume I
Part 1. Precursors
1. John Evelyn, Fumifugium: or, The Inconvenience of the Aer and Smoke of London Dissipated. Together With some Remedies humbly proposed by J.E. Esq.; To His Sacred Majestie, And To the Parliament now Assembled (London: Gabriel Bedel, and Thomas Collins, 1772 ).
2. John Evelyn, Sylva; or a Discourse of Forest-Trees and the Propagation of Timber in His Majesty’s Dominions (London: J. Walthoe, 1729 ).
3. John Ray The Wisdom of God Manifested in the Work of Creation, The Seventh Edition, Corrected (London: William Innys, 1717 ).
4. Robert Hooke, A General Scheme, or Idea of the Present State of Natural Philosophy (London: Royal Society, 1705).
5. Linnaeus (Linne, Carl Von), Lachesis Lapponica, or a Tour in Lapland, ed. James Edward Smith, Trans. Charles Troilius (London: Richard Taylor and Co, 1811). (First published as Flora Lapponica, Amsterdam, 1737).
6. Georges Louis de Buffon, Buffon’s Natural History: A Theory of the Earth, A General History of Man, of the Brute Creation, and of Vegetables, Minerals, & c. & c., From the French, with Notes by the Translator, in Ten Volumes, ed. and trans. William Smith Barr, Vol VI (London: S. D. Symonds, 1797 ).
7. Emmerich de Vattel, The Law of Nations, or Principles of Natural Law, Applied to the Conduct and Affairs of Nations and Sovereigns: A Work Tending to Display the True Interest of Powers (Philadelphia: P.H. Nicklin & T. Johnson, 1835) (first published in French, 1758, in English 1760).
8. John Bruckner, A Philosophical Survey of the Animal Creation, an Essay. trans. from the French (London: S. Highley, 1791).
Part 2. Natural Theology and the Great Chain of Being
9. William Smellie, The Philosophy of Natural History (Edinburgh, 1791).
10. Thomas Malthus, An Essay on the Principle of Population, as it Affects the Future Improvement of Society with Remarks on the Speculations of Mr Godwin, M. Condorcet, and Other Writers (London: J. Johnson, 1798).
11. Natural Theology; or, Evidences of the Existence and Attributes of the Deity, Collected From the Appearances of Nature, 2nd ed. (London: R. Paulder, 1802).
12. Peter Mark Roget, Animal and Vegetable Physiology considered with reference to Natural Theology, Treatise 5 (2 vols.) in The Bridgewater Treatises, 3rd ed. (London: William Pickering, 1834).
13. Adam Sedgwick, On the Studies of the University, 2nd ed. (Cambridge: Pitt Press, 1834).
14. Henry Cole, Popular Geology Subversive of Divine Revelation! A Letter to the Rev. Adam Sedgwick, Woodwardian Professor of Geology in the University of Cambridge, Being a Scriptural Refutation of the Geological Positions and Doctrines Promulgated in his Lately Published Commencement Sermon, Preached in the University of Cambridge, 1832 (London: Hatchard and Son, 1834).
15. William Buckland, Geology and Minerology with Reference to Natural Theology, Treatise 6 in The Bridgewater Treatises (London: William Pickering, 1837 ).
16. John Ruskin, Letters Addressed to a College Friend 1840–1845 (1894).
17. Edward Hitchcock, The Religion of Geology and its Connected Sciences (Boston: Phillips, Samson, and Co., 1854 ).
18. Thomas Ewbank, The World a Workshop; or, the Physical Relationship of Man to the Earth (New York: D. Appleton and Company, 1855).
Part 3. Theology
19. James Hutton, Abstract of a dissertation read in the Royal Society of Edinburgh, upon the seventh of March, and fourth of April, MDCCLXXXV, Concerning the System of the Earth, Its Duration, and Stability, (Edinburgh, 1785).
20. James Hutton, ‘Theory of the Earth; or an investigation of the laws observable in the composition, dissolution, and restoration of land upon the Globe’, Transactions of the Royal Society of Edinburgh 1, 2, 209–304.
21. Baron Georges Cuvier, Essay on the Theory of the Earth (Paris, 1813).
22 Sir Everard Home, ‘Some Account of the fossil Remains of an Animal more nearly allied to Fishes than any of the other Classes of Animals’ (1814).
23. William Smith, Strata Identified by Organized Fossils (London: W. Arding, 1816).
24. W.D. Conybeare, ‘On the Discovery of an almost perfect Skeleton of the Plesiosaurus’, Transactions of the Geological Society of London, 1823.
25. Charles Lyell, Principles of Geology, Being an Attempt to Explain the Former Changes of the Earth’s Surface, By Reference to Causes Now in Operation, 3 vols (London: John Murray, 1830–3), Vol 1 (1830), Vol 2 (1832), Vol. 3 (1833).
26. Etheldred Benett, A Catalogue of the Organic Remains of the County of Wilts (Warminster: J.L. Vardy, 1831).
27. William Buckland, Geology and Minerology with Reference to Natural Theology, Treatise 6 in The Bridgewater Treatises (London: William Pickering, 1837 ).
28. Roderick Murchison, The Silurian System (1839)
29. Mary Anning, letter to Magazine of Natural History 3 (1839), 605.
30. Gideon Mantell, On the Pelorosaurus; An Undescribed Gigantic Terrestrial Reptile Whose Remains are Associated with those of the Iguanodon and other Saurians in the Strata of Tilgate Forest, In Sussex (London: R. and J. E. Taylor, Red Lion Court, 1850).
31. Philip Gosse, Creation (Omphalos): an Attempt to Untie the Geological Knot (London: J. Van Voorst, 1857).
32. Hugh Miller, Testimony of the Rocks or Geology in its Bearing on the Two Theologies, Natural & Revealed (Edinburgh: Thomas Constable & Co., 1857).
Part 4. Comparative Anatomy
33. Xavier Bichat, General Anatomy, Applied to Physiology and Medicine, trans. George Hayward, vols., Vol. 1 (Boston: Richardson and Lord, 1822 [first published in French, 1801]).
34. Baron Georges Cuvier, Lectures on Comparative Anatomy, Vol. 1. On the Organs of Motion, trans. William Ross (London: T. N. Longman and O. Rees, 1802 [first published in French, 1800]).
35. Baron Georges Cuvier, Essay on the Theory of the Earth (Paris, 1813).
36. Baron Georges Cuvier, The Animal Kingdom, Arranged after its Organisation, Forming a Natural History of Animals, and An Introduction to Comparative Anatomy, A New Edition with additions by W. B. Carpenter (London: M. S. Orr and Co, 1851 [first published in French, 1817]).
37. [Richard Owen], ‘Report on British fossil reptiles. Part II.’, Report of the Eleventh Meeting of the British Association for the Advancement of Science; Held at Plymouth in July 1841: 60–204 (1841).
38. Richard Owen, Description of the Skeleton of an Extinct Gigantic Sloth, Mylodon Robustus, with Observations on the Osteology, Natural Affinities, and Probable Habits of the Megatherioid Quadrupeds in General (London: John Van Voorst, 1842).
39. Richard Owen, Lectures on the Comparative Anatomy and Physiology of the Vertebrate Animals, Delivered at the Royal College of Surgeons of England in 1844 and 1846, Part I. Fishes (London: Longman, Brown, Green, and Longman, 1846).
40. Richard Owen, On the Nature of Limbs: A Discourse Delivered on Friday, February 9 at an Evening Meeting of the Royal Institution of Great Britain (London: John Van Voorst, 1849).
41. Louis Agassiz, Twelve Lectures on Comparative Anatomy Delivered Before the Lowell Institute in Boston, December and January 1848–9, enlarged edition (Boston: Redding & Co., 1849).
Part 5. Botany
42. William Curtis, Flora Londinensis, 6 vols, Vol. 1 (London: B. White, 1777).
43. Gilbert White, The Natural History and Antiquities of Selborne, in the County of Southampton: with Engravings and an Appendix (London: T. Bensley, 1789).
44. Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Goethe’s Essay on the Metamorphosis of Plants, Translated by Emily M. Cox; with Explanatory Notes by Maxwell T. Masters (reprinted from the Journal of Botany, December 1863) (np: J. E. Taylor, 1863 ).
45. James Sowerby [and James Edward Smith], English Botany; Or, Coloured Figures of British Plants, vol. 2: Resedacae to Sapindaceae, 3rd ed. ed. John T. Boswell Syme (London: Robert Hardwicke, 1864 ).
46. William Jackson Hooker, The British Flora; Comprising the Phænogamous, or Flowering Plants, and The Ferns (London: Longman, Rees, Orme, Brown, & Green, 1830).
47. John Lindley, An Outline of the First Principles of Botany (London: Longman & Co., 1830).
48. atherine Sophia Kane, The Irish Flora; Comprising the Phænogamous Plants and Ferns (Dublin: Hodges and Smith and London: Longman, Rees and Co, 1833).
49. George Luxford, A Flora of the Neighbourhood of Reigate, Surrey, Containing the Flowering Plants and Ferns (London: John Van Voorst, 1838).
50. Anna Worsley Russell, Catalogue of Plants Found in the Neighbourhood of Newbury (npl: np, 1839).
51. Charles Darwin, Journal of Researches into the Geology and Natural History of the Various Countries Visited by H. M. S. Beagle Under the Command of Captain Fitzroy, R. N. From 1832 to 1836 (London: Henry Colburn, 1839).
52. John Ruskin, ‘Of Truth of Vegetation’, The Library Edition of John Ruskin’s Works, 39 vols, (London: George Allen, 1903–12), Vol. 3 Modern Painters I, 1903.
53. Joseph Dalton Hooker, Flora Antarctica: the Botany of the Antarctic Voyage of H. M. Discovery Ships Erebus and Terror in the Years 1839–1843 Under the Command of Captain Sir James Clark Ross, 3 vols, Vol. 1. Botany of Lord Auckland’s Group and Campbell’s Island (London: Reeve Brothers, 1844).
54. William Jackson Hooker (ed.), Niger Flora; or, An Enumeration of the Plants of Western Tropical Africa, Collected by the Late Dr Theodore Vogel, Botanist to the Voyage of the Expedition Sent by Her Britannic Majesty to the River Niger in 1841, (London: Hippolyte Bailliere, 1849).
55. Thomas Ewbank, The World a Workshop; or, the Physical Relationship of Man to the Earth (New York: D. Appleton and Company, 1855).
Part 6. Zoology
56. Gilbert White, The Natural History and Antiquities of Selborne, in the County of Southampton: with Engravings and an Appendix (London: T. Bensley, 1789).
57. William Smellie, The Philosophy of Natural History (Edinburgh, 1791).
58. John Curtis, British Entomology; Being Illustrations and Descriptions of the General of Insects Found in Great Britain and Ireland: Containing Coloured Figures from Nature of the Most Rare and Beautiful Species, and in Many Instances of the Plants upon which they are Found, Vol. I. Coleoptera (London: Sherwood, Gilbert, and Piper, 1824).
59. Andrew Pritchard, The Natural History of Animalcules: Containing Descriptions of all the Known Species of Infusoria; with Instructions for Procuring and Viewing Them, &c, &c., &c. (London: Whittaker and Co, 1834).
60. Charles Waterton, Essays in Natural History, Chiefly Ornithology, with An Autobiography of the Author and a View of Walton Hall (London: Longman, Orme, Brown, Green, & Longman, 1838).
61. Charles Darwin, Journal of Researches into the Geology and Natural History of the Various Countries Visited by H. M. S. Beagle Under the Command of Captain Fitzroy, R. N. From 1832 to 1836 (London: Henry Colburn, 1839).
62. John Gould, An Introduction to the Birds of Australia (London: Richard and John E. Taylor, 1848).
63. Thomas Ewbank, The World a Workshop; or, the Physical Relationship of Man to the Earth (New York: D. Appleton and Company, 1855).
Part 7. ‘New World’ Environments and Scientific Exploration
64. Joseph Dalton Hooker (ed,), Journal of the Right Honourable Sir Joseph Banks (1896) (covering the voyages of HMS Endeavour, 1768–71.
65. Carl Peter Thunberg, ‘The Cape’, Travels in Europe, Africa, and Asia (1795).
66. Alexander von Humboldt and Aimé Bonpland, Personal Narrative of Travels to the
Equinoctial Regions of the New Continent During the Years 1799–1804¸vol. 3 (1814).
67. Charles Waterton, ‘First Journey’, Wanderings in South America (1825).
68. Charles Waterton, ‘Notes on the Habits of the Chegoe of Guiana, better Known by the Name of Jigger, and Instances of its Effects on Man and Dogs’, Essays in Natural History (1838).
69. Charles Darwin, ‘Falkland Islands’, Journal of Researches into the Geology and Natural History of the Various Countries Visited by H. M. S. Beagle (1839).
70. George Gardner, ‘Journey to and Residence in the Organ Mountains’, Travels in the Interior of Brazil (1846).
71. Sir William Jackson Hooker (ed.), (ed.), Niger Flora; or, An Enumeration of the Plants of Western Tropical Africa, Collected by the Late Dr Theodore Vogel, Botanist to the Voyage of the Expedition Sent by Her Britannic Majesty to the River Niger in 1841 (London: Hippolyte Bailliere, 1849).
72. Thomas Thomson, Western Himalaya and Tibet (1852).
Part 8. Demographics, Geography, and Biogeography
73. Gilbert White, The Natural History and Antiquities of Selborne (1788–9).
74. Thomas Malthus, Essay on Population (1798).
75. Alexander von Humboldt, ‘Steppes and Deserts’, Views of Nature (1808).
76. ‘The Altai Mountains and Sources of the Ob’, Asiatic Journal IX 1833.
77. ‘Travels in Daghestan’, Asiatic Journal IX 1833.
78. Joseph Dalton Hooker, Flora Antarctica: the Botany of the Antarctic Voyage of H. M. Discovery Ships Erebus and Terror in the Years 1839–1843 Under the Command of Captain Sir James Clark Ross , 3 vols, Vol. 1. Botany of Lord Auckland’s Group and Campbell’s Island (London: Reeve Brothers, 1844).
79. Alexander Von Humboldt, ‘The Geography of Plants and Animals’, Cosmos (1845).
80. Wilhelm Wittich, ‘The Gulf Stream’, in Curiosities of Physical Geography (1845).
81. John Gould, An Introduction to the Birds of Australia (1848).
82. Richard Francis Burton, ‘Malabar’, Goa, and the Blue Mountains (1851).
83. James Laurie (ed.) and John Hutton Balfour, ‘Physical Geography, in Relation to Organized Beings; Or the Geographical Distribution of Vegetables, of Animals, and of the Human Race’, System of Universal Geography (1851).
84. Arthur Henfrey, ‘Italy’, The Vegetation of Europe, its Conditions and Causes (1852).
85. Henry Thomas Buckle, ‘Influence Exercised by Physical Laws Over the Organization of Society and Over the Character of Individuals’, A History of Civilization in England (1857).
Part 9. Evolutionary Thought before Origin of Species
86. Erasmus Darwin, Zoonomia, or, The Laws of Organic Life, 2nd corrected ed., Vol. 1 (London: J. Johnson, 1796)>
87. Erasmus Darwin, ‘Production of Life’, The Temple of Nature; or the Origin of Society (1804).
88. Jean-Baptiste Lamarck, Zoological Philosophy, or Exposition with Regard to the Natural History of Animals: The Diversity of Their Organisation and The Faculties which they Derive From it, trans. Hugh Elliot (London: Macmillan & Co., 1914 [first published in French 1809]).
89. Patrick Matthew, ‘Appendix: Note B’, On Naval Timber and Arboriculture (1831).
90. Charles Lyell, Principles of Geology, Being an Attempt to Explain the Former Changes of the Earth’s Surface, By Reference to Causes Now in Operation, 3 vols (London: John Murray, 1830–3), Vol 1 (1830), Vol 2 (1832), Vol. 3 (1833).
91. Charles Darwin, Journal of Researches into the Geology and Natural History of the Various Countries Visited by H. M. S. Beagle Under the Command of Captain Fitzroy, R. N. From 1832 to 1836 (London: Henry Colburn, 1839).
92. John Gould and Charles Darwin, ‘Fam. COCCOTHRAUSTINÆ’, Zoology of the Voyage of H.M.S. Beagle, Vol. 3: Birds (1841).
93. [Robert Chambers], ‘Hypothesis of the Development of the Vegetable and Animal Kingdoms’, Vestiges of the Natural History of Creation (1844).
94. Thomas Monck Mason, Creation by the Immediate Agency of God, as Opposed to Creation by Natural Law; Being a Refutation of the Work Entitled Vestiges of the Natural History of Creation (1845).
95. Charles Darwin and Alfred Russel Wallace, ‘On the Tendency of Species to Form Varieties; and on the Perpetuation of Varieties and Species by Natural Means of Selection’ (1858)
Part 10. Agricultural Science and Land Management
96. Nicholas Turner, An Essay on Draining and Improving Peat Bogs (1784).
97. A Method of Raising Hops in Red Bogs (1800).
98. An Essay on Peat or Turf, and on Turf and Wood Ashes, as a Manure (1800).
99. [William Roxburgh], ‘The Hindoo Method of Cultivating the Sugar Cane. From Tennant’s "Indian Revelations"’, The Annual Register; or A View of the History, Politics, and Culture For the Year 1803 (1803).
100. Edward Powys, ‘On Feeding Cattle With Green Food’, in Arthur Young (ed.), Annals of Agriculture and other Useful Arts, 45 vols (1785-1808), vol. 45 (London: Richard Phillips, 1808).
101. Arthur Young, General Report On Enclosures, Drawn up by Order of The Board of Agriculture (London: B. McMillan, 1808).
102. Henry Holland, General View of the Agriculture of Cheshire; with Observations Drawn up for the Consideration of The Board of Agriculture (London: Richard Phillips, 1808).
103. John Farey, General View of the Agriculture and Minerals of Derbyshire; with Observations on the Means of Their Improvement, Drawn Up For the Consideration of The Board of Agriculture and Internal Improvement (London: B. McMillan, 1811).
104. Joseph Hayward, On the Science of Agriculture, Comprising A Commentary on and Comparative Investigation of the Agricultural Chemistry of Mr Kirwan and Sir Humphry Davy
(London: Longman, Hurst, Rees, Orme, Brown, and Green, 1825).
105. ‘A Practical Farmer’ (J.M.), Hints on Agriculture (Hull: James Purdon, 1835).
106. John Lauris Blake, Lessons in Modern Farming: Or, Agriculture for Schools, Containing Scientific Exercises for Recitation; and Elegant Extracts from Rural Literature for Academic or Family Reading (New York: Newman and Ivison, 1852 ).
Dr Mark Frost, Senior Lecturer in English Literature, University of Portsmouth, UK