Mounting evidence suggests that GDP growth is damaging the natural environment and unlikely to be ecologically sustainable in the long-run. At the same time, an annual GDP growth rate of around three percent is regarded as the minimum necessary to prevent unemployment from escalating. Clearly, a trade-off exists between environmental goals and employment goals, yet this trade-off has been largely ignored or denied.
This book aims to resolve the environment-employment dilemma by suggesting ways and means to achieve low rates of unemployment, or preferably full employment, in the context of a low-growth or steady-state economy. In search of a solution to this dilemma, this book seeks to answer the following questions:
- What existing paradigms offer a possible foundation for further investigation into issues dealing with both the environment and employment?
- What specific initiatives can be implemented to deal with unemployment given that any potential solution must be consistent with responsible macroeconomic policy?
- To what extent can ecological tax reform provide a solution to the environment-employment dilemma?
- Under what circumstances is it clear that certain forms of employment generation are antithetic to the goal of ecological sustainability?
- How can more favourable employment-generating opportunities be exploited in ways which lower unemployment or achieve full employment without the need for ecologically-destructive GDP growth?
This book will no doubt stimulate a broader discussion on the issue, and it may just begin a process that leads to the eventual emergence of a viable policy strategy to generate a sustainable, full employment future. This book will be of interest to decision-makers, civil servants, researchers, and NGO employees as well as students of environmental and ecological economics and issues related to employment and unemployment.
Table of Contents
PART I: AN INTRODUCTION TO ENVIRONMENT AND EMPLOYMENT
Chapter 1: Why focus on the connection between the environment and employment?
Chapter 2: The potential conflict between ecological sustainability and full employment
PART II: POST-KEYNESIAN ECONOMICS AND THE ENVIRONMENT
Chapter 3: Why have Post-Keynesians (perhaps) inadequately dealt with issues related to the environment?
Chapter 4: Recovering and extending classical and Marshallian foundations for Post-Keynesian environmental economics
Chapter 5: Post-Keynesian economics and sustainable development
PART III: GUARANTEED EMPLOYMENT VERSUS GUARANTEED INCOME
Chapter 6: The Basic Income Guarantee and the goals of equity, efficiency, and environmentalism
Karl Widerquist and Michael Lewis
Chapter 7: Evaluating the economic and environmental viability of Basic Income and Job Guarantees
Chapter 8: A comparison of the macroeconomic consequences of Basic Income and Job Guarantee schemes
William Mitchell and Martin Watts
PART IV: ECOLOGICAL TAX REFORM AND THE DOUBLE DIVIDEND
Chapter 9: An applied general equilibrium analysis of a double dividend policy for the Spanish economy
Antonio Manresa and Ferran Sancho
Chapter 10: An empirical assessment of ecological tax reform and the double dividend
PART V: JOBS VERSUS THE ENVIRONMENT
Chapter 11: A city that works – employment patterns and ecosystem service requirements in greater Christchurch, New Zealand
Nigel Jollands, Nancy Golubiewski, and Garry McDonald
Chapter 12: Employment and environment in a sustainable Europe
Freiderich Hinterberger, Ines Omann, and Andrea Stocker
Chapter 13: Managing without growth
Peter Victor and Gideon Rosenbluth
PART VI: CONCLUSION
Chapter 14: Final thoughts on reconciling the goals of ecological sustainability and full employment
Philip Lawn is a Senior Lecturer in ecological economics at Flinders University, Australia. His work includes six books, numerous book chapters, and nearly fifty journal articles. His more recent book, co-edited with Matthew Clarke, focuses on sustainable welfare in the Asia-Pacific region.