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1st Edition

Environmental Forensics



ISBN 9780849320583
Published September 29, 1999 by CRC Press
384 Pages

 
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Book Description

Offering state-of-the-art techniques for both attorneys and environmental scientists, Environmental Forensics: Principles and Applications discusses non-chemical methods such as corrosion modeling, inventory reconciliation, and aerial photography interpretation. The book also covers chemical fingerprinting used to identify the origin and age of a contaminant release- relevant techniques include the use of radioactive isotope analysis, degradation modeling based on half-lives, and fuel additives such as MTBE.
Environmental Forensics provides case study examples of environmental trial exhibits. It covers misused techniques that can bias the scientific validity of a trial exhibit, such as scale exaggeration, use of statistical manipulation, data contouring, and selective presentation.
Detailed information is provided for identifying and interpreting those portions of environmental reports that are "target rich" sources of scientific biases. These include the identification of false positive, false negative and the intentional manipulation of environmental data that occurs primarily in the sample collection process.

Table of Contents

AN OVERVIEW OF THE HISTORY, CHEMISTRY AND TRANSPORT OF CHLORINATED SOLVENTS
Introduction
Chronology and Use of Chlorinated Solvents
Chemistry and Properties of Chlorinated Solvents
Transport of Chlorinated Solvents through Soil
Impact of Cosolvency on Transport through Soil
Transport of Vapors in Soil
Transport through the Capillary Fringe
Transport in Groundwater
References
CHEMISTRY AND TRANSPORT OF PETROLEUM HYDROCARBONS
Introduction
Chemistry of Crude Oil
Chemistry of Refined Products
Chemical Reactions in the Vadose Zone
Overview of Transport through the Unsaturated
(Vadose) Zone
Hydrocarbon Interactions at the Capillary Fringe
Transport in Groundwater
References
IDENTIFICATION OF BIASED ENVIRONMENTAL DATA
Introduction
Geologic Characterization
Interpretation of Geologic Information
Soil Collection for Chemical Analyses
Groundwater Characterization
Soil Vapor Surveys
Analytical Methods
References
FORENSIC TECHNIQUES USED IN ENVIRONMENTAL LITIGATION
Introduction
Aerial Photography
Underground Storage Tank Corrosion Models
Inventory Reconciliation
Commercial Availability of a Chemical
Chemicals and Formulations Unique to a Manufacturing Process or Activity
Petroleum Refinery Throughput Analysis
Chemical Identification of Petroleum Hydrocarbons
Radioactive Isotope Dating
Chemical and Biological Degradation Models: Petroleum Hydrocarbons
Rapid Optical Screening Tool™ Testing
References
CONTAMINANT TRANSPORT MODELING
Introduction
Liquid Transport through Pavement
Vapor Transport through Pavement
Contaminant Transport in Soil
Contaminant Transport in Groundwater
Application of Groundwater Modeling in Environmental Litigation
References
FORENSIC REVIEW OF ENVIRONMENTAL TRIAL EXHIBITS
Introduction
Exaggerated Vertical and Horizontal Scales
Selective Data Presentation
Data Contouring
References
APPENDICES
Appendix A - Sample Calculation for the Transport of PCE Vapor through Concrete Pavement
Appendix B - Sample Calculation for the Transport of PCE Liquid Through Concrete via Diffusion
Appendix C - Properties of Alcohol Oxygenates and Ether Oxygenates
Appendix D - Advective and Partitioning Transport Equations of Radon for Detecting Diesel in Groundwater
Appendix F - Chemical and Commerical Synonyms for Selected Chlorinated Solvents and Aromatic Hydrocarbons
Appendix G - Laboratory Terms and Definitions
INDEX

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