Environmental Forensics: 1st Edition (Hardback) book cover

Environmental Forensics

1st Edition

By Robert D. Morrison

CRC Press

384 pages

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Hardback: 9780849320583
pub: 1999-09-29
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Description

Offering state-of-the-art techniques for both attorneys and environmental scientists, Environmental Forensics: Principles and Applications discusses non-chemical methods such as corrosion modeling, inventory reconciliation, and aerial photography interpretation. The book also covers chemical fingerprinting used to identify the origin and age of a contaminant release- relevant techniques include the use of radioactive isotope analysis, degradation modeling based on half-lives, and fuel additives such as MTBE.

Environmental Forensics provides case study examples of environmental trial exhibits. It covers misused techniques that can bias the scientific validity of a trial exhibit, such as scale exaggeration, use of statistical manipulation, data contouring, and selective presentation.

Detailed information is provided for identifying and interpreting those portions of environmental reports that are "target rich" sources of scientific biases. These include the identification of false positive, false negative and the intentional manipulation of environmental data that occurs primarily in the sample collection process.

Table of Contents

AN OVERVIEW OF THE HISTORY, CHEMISTRY AND TRANSPORT OF CHLORINATED SOLVENTS

Introduction

Chronology and Use of Chlorinated Solvents

Chemistry and Properties of Chlorinated Solvents

Transport of Chlorinated Solvents through Soil

Impact of Cosolvency on Transport through Soil

Transport of Vapors in Soil

Transport through the Capillary Fringe

Transport in Groundwater

References

CHEMISTRY AND TRANSPORT OF PETROLEUM HYDROCARBONS

Introduction

Chemistry of Crude Oil

Chemistry of Refined Products

Chemical Reactions in the Vadose Zone

Overview of Transport through the Unsaturated

(Vadose) Zone

Hydrocarbon Interactions at the Capillary Fringe

Transport in Groundwater

References

IDENTIFICATION OF BIASED ENVIRONMENTAL DATA

Introduction

Geologic Characterization

Interpretation of Geologic Information

Soil Collection for Chemical Analyses

Groundwater Characterization

Soil Vapor Surveys

Analytical Methods

References

FORENSIC TECHNIQUES USED IN ENVIRONMENTAL LITIGATION

Introduction

Aerial Photography

Underground Storage Tank Corrosion Models

Inventory Reconciliation

Commercial Availability of a Chemical

Chemicals and Formulations Unique to a Manufacturing Process or Activity

Petroleum Refinery Throughput Analysis

Chemical Identification of Petroleum Hydrocarbons

Radioactive Isotope Dating

Chemical and Biological Degradation Models: Petroleum Hydrocarbons

Rapid Optical Screening Tool™ Testing

References

CONTAMINANT TRANSPORT MODELING

Introduction

Liquid Transport through Pavement

Vapor Transport through Pavement

Contaminant Transport in Soil

Contaminant Transport in Groundwater

Application of Groundwater Modeling in Environmental Litigation

References

FORENSIC REVIEW OF ENVIRONMENTAL TRIAL EXHIBITS

Introduction

Exaggerated Vertical and Horizontal Scales

Selective Data Presentation

Data Contouring

References

APPENDICES

Appendix A - Sample Calculation for the Transport of PCE Vapor through Concrete Pavement

Appendix B - Sample Calculation for the Transport of PCE Liquid Through Concrete via Diffusion

Appendix C - Properties of Alcohol Oxygenates and Ether Oxygenates

Appendix D - Advective and Partitioning Transport Equations of Radon for Detecting Diesel in Groundwater

Appendix F - Chemical and Commerical Synonyms for Selected Chlorinated Solvents and Aromatic Hydrocarbons

Appendix G - Laboratory Terms and Definitions

INDEX

Subject Categories

BISAC Subject Codes/Headings:
LAW034000
LAW / Environmental
LAW041000
LAW / Forensic Science
SCI026000
SCIENCE / Environmental Science