Environmental Health and Hazard Risk Assessment: Principles and Calculations, 1st Edition (Hardback) book cover

Environmental Health and Hazard Risk Assessment

Principles and Calculations, 1st Edition

By Louis Theodore, R. Ryan Dupont

CRC Press

636 pages | 70 B/W Illus.

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Environmental Health and Hazard Risk Assessment: Principles and Calculations explains how to evaluate and apply environmental health and hazard risk assessment calculations in a variety of real-life settings. Using a wealth of examples and case studies, the book helps readers develop both a theoretical understanding and a working knowledge of the principles of health, safety, and accident management.

Learn the Fundamentals of Health, Safety, and Accident Management

The book takes a pragmatic approach to risk assessment, identifying problems and outlining solutions. Organized into four parts, the text:

  • Presents an overview of the history of environmental health and hazard problems, legal considerations, and emergency planning and response
  • Tackles the broad subject of health risk assessment, discussing toxicology, exposure, and health risk characterization
  • Examines hazard risk assessment in significant detail—from problem identification, probability, consequence, and characterization of hazards/accidents to the fundamentals of applicable statistics theory
  • Uses case studies to demonstrate the applications and calculations of risk analysis for real systems

Incorporate Health and Safety in Process Design

The book assumes only a basic background in physics, chemistry, and mathematics, making it suitable for students and those new to the field. It is also a valuable reference for practicing engineers, scientists, technicians, technical managers, and others tasked with ensuring that plant and equipment operations meet applicable standards and regulations. A clear and comprehensive resource, this book offers guidance for those who want to reduce or eliminate the environmental health effects and accidents that can result in loss of life, materials, and property.


"… should be part of any public health library. … highly recommended for use by risk/hazard assessors, regulatory officials, industry risk/hazard managers, environmental science/health students, public health practitioners, and readers of HERA. Kudos to the authors for preparing such a useful and fulfilling book."

—Barry L. Johnson, Ph.D., Managing Editor, Journal of Human and Ecological Risk Assessment

"This reader-friendly text is excellently written and unique in the breadth, depth and application of the subject. It is brought to life and made very understandable via the illustrative examples. This would be my first choice when recommending a text to someone interested in discovering what environmental risk is all about."

—John D. McKenna, Ph.D., Principal, ETS, INC, Roanoke, Virginia, USA

"Such a calculation-based book was sorely needed … a ‘must’ for any technical library."

—Anthony Buonicore, P.E., BCEE, QEP, Principal, Buonicore Partners, LLC, Connecticut, USA

"This is the definitive book on environmental risk. The book addresses critically needed regulatory issues, the case studies illustrating the magnitude of risk associated with resource management industries such as coal mines, the BP oil disaster, [and] natural disasters. … The problems and solutions will be very valuable to readers to further understand the concept of health risk and hazardous risk and its management. It has excellent illustrative examples that range from real-world applications to a hypothetical meteorite collision. This will be a very valuable textbook for students as well as a reference book for engineers, scientists and regulatory personnel."

—Kumar Ganesan, Professor and Head, Department of Environmental Engineering, Montana Tech, USA

"This book is easy to read and is loaded with over 200 well-thought-out illustrative examples of risk assessment that complement the theory and provide appropriate practical applications. This is a wonderful book that will serve both students and graduates well."

—Leo Stander, PE, BCEE, Cary, North Carolina, USA

Table of Contents

Part I Introductory Comments

About the Book

Why Use Risk-Based Decision Making?

Book Contents


Risk Terms

Financial Risk

History of Environmental Health Problems

First Humans

Development of Agriculture

Colonization of the New World

Industrial Revolution

History of Environmental Hazard Problems

Early Accidents

Recent Major Accidents

Major Accidents in the Twenty-First Century

Advances in Safety Features

Health Risk versus Hazard Risk

Introduction to the Health Risk Assessment Process

Introduction to the Hazard Risk Assessment Process

Qualitative Risk Scenarios

What Are the Differences?

Uncertainty Factors

Future Trends in Environmental Risk Assessment

Environmental Regulatory Framework

Regulatory System

Laws and Regulations: The Differences

Role of the States

Resource Conservation and Recovery Act

Major Toxic Chemical Laws Administered by the U.S. EPA

Legislative Tools for Controlling Water Pollution

Oil Pollution Act

Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (CERCLA) of 1986

Clean Air Act

Occupational Safety and Health Act

EPA’s Risk Management Program

Pollution Prevention Act of 1990

Emergency Planning and Response

Need for Emergency Response Planning

Planning Committee

Hazards Survey

Plan for Emergencies

Training of Personnel

Notification of Public and Regulatory Officials

Plan Implementation

Other State Regulatory Initiatives

Illustrative Examples

Part II Health Risk Assessment

Introduction to Health Risk Assessment

Health Risk Evaluation Process

Health Problem Identification

Toxicology and Dose–Response

Exposure Assessment

Health Risk Characterization

Health Problem Identification

Toxicology Principles

Epidemiology Principles

Molecular/Atomic Structural Analysis

Material Safety Data Sheets

Engineering Problem Solving

Fate of Chemicals in the Environment Related to Health Problems

Carcinogens versus Noncarcinogens

Toxicity and Dose–Response







Exposure Assessment

Components of an Exposure Assessment

Dispersion in Water Systems

Dispersion in Soils

Dispersion in the Atmosphere

Health Risk Characterization

Qualitative Health Risk Scenarios

Quantitative Risk: Noncarcinogens

Quantitative Risk: Carcinogens

Risk Uncertainties/Limitations

Risk-Based Decision Making

Public Perception of Risk

Part III Hazard Risk Assessment

Introduction to Hazard Risk Assessment

Risk Evaluation Process for Accidents

Hazard Identification

Probability and Causes of Accidents

Consequences of Accidents

Hazard Risk Characterization

Hazard/Event Problem Identification

Process Equipment

Classification of Accidents

Fires, Explosions, Toxic Emissions, and Hazardous Spills

Hazard Event Evaluation Techniques

Hazard/Event Probability

Accident Causes

Series and Parallel Systems

Probability Distributions

Weibull Distribution

Fault Tree Analysis

Hazard/Event Consequences

Accident Minimization/Prevention

Consequence Estimation

Failure Modes, Effects, and Criticality Analysis (FMECA)

Vulnerability Analysis

Event Tree Analysis

Hazard Risk Characterization

Risk Characterization

Public Perception of Risk

Risk Communication

Cause–Consequence Analysis

Qualitative Hazard Risk Assessment


Quantitative Hazard Risk Assessment

Part IV Case Studies

Case for Case Studies

Case Study Criteria: Is It Logical, Relevant, and Reasonable?

Preparing a Case Study Solution

Monte Carlo Simulation

Case Study 1: Time to Pump Failure

Case Study 2: Time to Failure of Two Electrical Components

Case Study 3: Nuclear Plant Temperature Gauge Lifetime

Case Study 4: Bus Section Failures in Electrostatic


Emergency Planning and Response

Case Study 1: Terrorist Attack of a Pharmaceutical Company’s Plant in Greenpoint, Brooklyn, New York

Case Study 2: Terrorist Attack of the Brooklyn Navy Yard in Greenpoint, Brooklyn, New York

Case Study 3: Plans to Counter the Possibility of a Process or Plant-Related Accident at the "Wedo" Chemical Facility in Suffolk County, Long Island, New York

Case Study 4: Dilution Ventilation Models

Natural Disasters

Case Study 1: Hurricanes

Case Study 2: Floods

Case Study 3: Earthquakes

Case Study 4: Meteorites

Case Study 5: Combined Hurricanes and Flooding

Industrial Accidents

Case Study 1: Nanochemical Plant Accident

Case Study 2: Caustic Tank Preliminary Hazard Analysis

Case Study 3: Transportation of Hazardous Chemicals

Case Study 4: Offshore Rig Accident



Chapters include an introduction and references.

Subject Categories

BISAC Subject Codes/Headings:
SCIENCE / Environmental Science
TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING / Environmental / General