Environmental Impact Analysis: Process and Methods, 1st Edition (Paperback) book cover

Environmental Impact Analysis

Process and Methods, 1st Edition

By James T. Maughan

CRC Press

400 pages | 49 B/W Illus.

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There are thousands of environmental analyses prepared each year to meet the requirements of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) and similar programs. Written by an expert with 35 years of experience in environmental consulting, research, and education, Environmental Impact Analysis: Process and Methods makes the preparation of EIAs not only easier but more thorough. It provides a guide to successfully preparing analyses that are legally defensible; establish the base for environmental protection; and produce better projects, plans, and policies.

Following an informal description of the legal requirements, the book breaks down the analysis process into a logical flow of steps and available methods to identify impacts, compare alternatives, and develop impact mitigation measures. The author illustrates each step and analysis method with examples from case studies he managed, providing insight not available from an independent review of the cases. He offers a comprehensive and consistent approach to analysis with each chapter building on information presented in previous sections.

The book also describes methods from other programs such as hazardous waste clean-up and Natural Resources Damage Assessment and explains how they can be adapted for use in environmental impact analysis. It compares a diverse array of multi-level environmental impact analysis approaches. Readers learn not only how to produce an environmental document that meets regulations but also clearly maximizes the benefits of the analysis and results in a more useful product with strong stakeholder support.


"Dr. Maughan has authored a comprehensive compendium of practical and easily read guidance for NEPA practitioners and environmental planners of any discipline. His methodical and well explained approach demystifies the often complex NEPA/EIS process and provides the reader with practical and balanced advice on every aspect of the planning and development of the range of NEPA documents."

––David Tomey, Retired Biologist and NEPA Specialist with the Federal Government

"Author James Maughan infuses each chapter with the broad perspective of a leader of one of the world’s top environmental consulting firms. His generously shared insights into EIA failures, as well as successes, make this book particularly valuable to practitioners. … Acquiring this book enables the reader to draw readily upon highly relevant insights--akin to engaging front-line colleagues and advisors. Practicality, integration and scope flow abundantly."

––Richard E. Wetzler, Ph.D., Director, Institute for international Ecological Assessment and Consultant to the United Nations Environment Programme

"If you are experienced in ERA and would like to expand your practice into EIA, this is the book for you. It will show you how your current knowledge can be adapted and will provide the EIA legalisms, jargon, and procedures that you will need. That information is more important than you might think."

—Glenn Suter, SETAC Reviews Editor, in Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management

Table of Contents


Summary of the National Environmental Policy Act and Implementing Regulations

Development of a National Environmental Policy

Contents of NEPA

Summary of CEQ Regulations Implementing NEPA

Clean Air Act as It Relates to NEPA

NEPA Implementation


NEPA Process and Specific Requirements

NEPA Process

Purpose and Need

Purpose and Need Case Study: Washington Aqueduct Water Treatment Residuals

Purpose and Need Case Study: U.S. Coast Guard Rulemaking for Dry Cargo Residue Discharge in the Great Lakes

Purpose and Need Conclusions

Categorical Exclusion as an Efficiency Approach to Environmental Analysis

NEPA Enforcement

NEPA Conclusion


Overview and Initiating the Environmental Impact Analysis and Assessment

Environmental Impact Analysis Approach

Need for Environmental Impact Analysis


Public Outreach

Development and Preliminary Evaluation of Alternatives


Conducting the Environmental Impact Analysis and Assessment

Environmental Impact Analysis Components

Affected Environment

Impact Prediction

Impact Mitigation

Long-Term Productivity, Irreversible Commitment of Resources and Cumulative Impacts


Multilevel Environmental Impact Analysis


Multilevel Environmental Impact Analysis Approaches

Multilevel Environmental Impact Case Studies

6.4 Strategic Environmental Assessment

6.5 Conclusions


Environmental Analysis Tools


Ecological Risk Assessment

Net Environmental Benefit Analysis (NEBA)

Adapting Tools to Environmental Impact Analysis


International and Individual State Environmental Impact Analysis Programs


Canadian Environmental Program

Australian Environmental Program

European Union Environmental Program

Japanese Environmental Program

U.S. State Environmental Analysis Programs



Coordinating and Managing the Environmental Impact Analysis Processes


Integrating Environmental Approvals and Analysis

Managing the Environmental Impact Analysis

Environmental Impact Analysis Critical Success Factors

Background on Case Studies

Boston Harbor Cleanup Environmental Impact Statement

10.2 U.S. Coast Guard Dry Cargo Residue Management EIS

AJ Mine Tailings Disposal EIS

Washington Aqueduct Water Treatment Residuals Management EIS



Subject Categories

BISAC Subject Codes/Headings:
LAW / Environmental
SCIENCE / Environmental Science
TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING / Environmental / General