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Environmental Impacts of Hydraulic Fracturing




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ISBN 9781466514676
Published September 17, 2012 by CRC Press
477 Pages - 27 B/W Illustrations

 
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Book Description

There is a strong need for innovation and the development of viable renewable energy sources. Recent technological advances now allow natural gas supplies—previously believed inaccessible or nonexistent—to be discovered, mined, and processed for both industrial and consumer use. The technology, a controversial process that is alternatively called hydraulic fracturing, fracking, fracing, or hydrofracking, has greatly expanded natural gas production in the United States. Presenting a balanced discussion, Environmental Impacts of Hydraulic Fracturing is a comprehensive guide to all aspects of hydraulic fracturing used to extract natural gas, along with gas exploration and production in various shale fields.

As the use of hydraulic fracturing has grown, concerns about its environmental and public health impacts have also increased—one of the most significant concerns being the fluids that are injected into rock formations to cause the fracturing contain potentially hazardous chemical additives. The book covers all facets of the issue, including ongoing controversies about the environmental and operator safety issues arising from possible water pollution, drinking water contamination, on-the-job safety hazards, and harmful chemical exposure to workers and residents near well areas.

The author discusses both the pros and cons of hydraulic fracturing, explaining the process in great detail. He describes the benefits of hydraulic fracturing and its importance in making the United States energy independent by drilling for its own resources, as well as the potential impacts to the surrounding environment. The text also includes suggestions and recommendations on how to mitigate environmental damage. Arguably the first book of its kind, this is the go-to text on the use and impacts of hydraulic fracturing.

Table of Contents

Introduction
Shalenanza
The Other Side of the Coin
Earthquakes
Internal Structure of Earth
Key Definitions
Purpose of Text
Thought-Provoking Discussion Questions
References and Recommended Reading

Shale Gas
Importance of Shale Gas
Versatility of Natural Gas
Alternative or Renewable Energy
The 411 on Natural Gas
The 411 on Processing and Refining Natural Gas
Thought-Provoking Discussion Questions
References and Recommended Reading

Shale Gas Geology
Introduction
Sedimentation
Types of Sedimentary Rocks
Chemical Sedimentary Rocks
Physical Characteristics of Sedimentary Rocks
Sedimentary Rock Facies
Thought-Provoking Discussion Questions
References and Recommended Reading

Shale Gas Plays
Unconventional Natural Gas Resources
Distribution of Unconventional Natural Shale Gas
Fast Forward to the Future
Thought-Provoking Discussion Questions
References and Recommended Reading

Shale Gas Sources
Shale Gas in the United States
Geologic Time Scale
Active U.S. Shale Gas Plays
Thought-Provoking Discussion Questions
References and Recommended Reading

Hydraulic Fracturing: The Process
Poor Farm Folk to Texas Rich
Drilling for Water Versus Drilling for Shale Gas
Water Well Systems
Components of a Water Well
Shale Gas Drilling Development Technology
Drilling
Hydraulic Fracturing
Fracking Water Supply
Thought-Provoking Discussion Questions
References and Recommended Reading

Chemicals Used in Hydraulic Fracturing
Background
Fracking Fluids and Their Constituents
Trade Secrets and Proprietary Chemicals
Thought-Provoking Discussion Questions
References and Recommended Reading

Environmental Considerations
Introduction
Access Roads, Well Pads, and Mineral Rights
Horizontal Wells
Thought-Provoking Discussion Questions
References and Recommended Reading

Laws and Regulations Affecting Shale Gas Development and Operations
Introduction
Regulations for Shale Gas Operations
Pollution: Effects Often Easy to See, Feel, Taste, or Smell
Regulatory Structure
Water Quality Regulations
Clean Water Act
Safe Drinking Water Act
Oil Pollution Act of 1990
Air Quality
Clean Air Act
Clean Air Act and Hydraulic Fracturing Operations
Land (Soil) Quality
Oil and Gas Operations on Public Lands
Superfund (CERCLA)
Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act
OSHA Oil and Gas Drilling, Servicing, and Storage Standards
OSHA Standards Applicable to Shale Gas Operations
Thought-Provoking Discussion Questions
References and Recommended Reading

Glossary

Appendix A. Chemicals Used in Hydraulic Fracturing

Appendix B. Case Study Locations for Hydraulic Fracturing Study

Index

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Reviews

"… a comprehensive guide to every aspect of the process of hydraulic fracturing used to extract shale gas (natural gas) from shale formations, along with gas exploration and production from various shale formations/reservoirs. The text is not biased toward any particular aspect of the process, but is presented as a balanced and objective approach. The book is an easy-to-read text and will make an excellent reference book. … a worthy addition to the bookshelves of anyone with an interest in the concepts and effects of hydraulic fracturing.
–James Speight, Petroleum Science and Technology, 2013